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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
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<!DOCTYPE chapter PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN" "http://docbook.org/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd">
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<chapter>
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                <title>Using the Internet</title>
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                <para><emphasis role="strong">Objectives</emphasis></para>
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                <para>In this lesson, you will learn to:</para>
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                <itemizedlist>
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                        <listitem><para>Connect to the Internet</para></listitem>
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                        <listitem><para>Browse the Web</para></listitem>
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                        <listitem><para>Access various news sources</para></listitem>
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                        <listitem><para>Send and receive e-mail messages</para></listitem>
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                        <listitem><para>Use various tools for instant messaging</para></listitem>
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                        <listitem><para>Make phone calls using Softphones</para></listitem>
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                </itemizedlist>
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                <instructornote><title>Instructor Notes:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">It is recommended to cover all 
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                the topics in this lesson. However, if you are running short on time, you can omit the following optional topics:
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                Using Dial-up, Alternative E-mail Client and WengoPhone.</emphasis></para>
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                </instructornote>
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                <sect1>
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                        <title>Connecting to and Using the Internet</title>
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                        <para>The Internet is used daily by millions of people for work and entertainment. Searching for
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                        information all over the world, corresponding with friends
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                        and relatives, participating in discussion forums, reading the news, playing games,
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                        has never been easier... or more accessible.</para>
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                        <para>The means of connecting to the Internet is not always a choice and depends greatly on where you live and/or work
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                        and the surrounding infrastructure. The pre-requisites to connect to the Internet are an Internet Service Provider (ISP) subscription and a functional Internet connection in your area.
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                        Configuring the Internet connection requires minimal involvement from you. Ubuntu supports most connection types. This
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                        lesson  will cover: Broadband (cable or ASDL), dial-up and direct access through Local Area Network (LAN).</para>
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                        <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
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                        <para>Broadband refers to either Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) or a DOCSIS connection (television cable).</para> 
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                        <para>Ethernet Modem (PPPoE) uses a modem connected to the computer with an Ethernet network cable.  
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                                It is generally used in conjunction with Broadband connection.</para>
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                        <para>Dial-up uses dial-up connection, and is limited to 56 kbit/s or slower.</para> 
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                        <para>Local Area Network (LAN) uses Ethernet or wireless, and is generally also used in conjunction with a Broadband connection.</para>
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                        <para>Mobile Phone uses modem functionality integrated into modern mobile phones.</para></tip>
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                        <para>Broadband connections are fast and reliable connections that users subscribe to
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                        for a fixed monthly fee. Broadband companies offer packages with different speed
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                        specifications and bandwidth limits. If you travel and need Internet access, you
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                        can purchase a wireless Internet connection. If your computer does not have one pre-installed, 
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                        you will need to install a wireless card. This connection is similar to a satellite connection, where data is
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                        transmitted through the airwaves.</para>
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                        <para>Dial-up access uses the same lines as your phone connection, except that the parties at the two ends are computers. This is a slow and cheap connection 
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                        that uses a phone line to connect to a local server. Your computer dials a phone number that is provided by your ISP and
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                        connects to the server. Consequently, you cannot make phone calls while you are connected to the Internet.  This is oldest and slowest means of connecting; carrying out many functions
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                        using this mode can be very tedious and frustrating.</para>
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                        <sect2>
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                                <title>Network Manager</title>
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                        <para>The Network Manager on Ubuntu is a simple to use and powerful utility to stay connected with wired and wireless adapters. It is located on the top menubar at the outer right corner.
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                        A left-click will reveal if your computer is already connected to a wired or wireless network. In case of a wireless network that is protected by a password, a dialogue will appear and ask for the password.
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                        The password can then be stored in your keyring, where it will automatically be used when needed. However, you may be asked for your keyring password if you have to log out.</para> 
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                        <figure id="fig:network-manager"><title><emphasis role="italic">Network Manager</emphasis></title>
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                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
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                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_001.png" format="PNG" />
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                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
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                        </figure>
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                        <para>You can also right-click on Network Manager to enable and disable wireless and wired connections.
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                        The connection information allows access to the network parameters currently used.</para>
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                        <figure id="fig:network-manager-connection"><title><emphasis role="italic">Network Manager Connection</emphasis></title>
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                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
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                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_002.png" format="PNG" />
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                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
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                        </figure>
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                        <para>If Network Manager does not automatically configure your network connections, you can fall back to manually configuring them.</para>
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                        </sect2>
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                        <sect2>
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                                <title>Using a Cable Connection</title>
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                                <para>To connect to the Internet using a cable connection:</para>
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                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
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                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> menu, point
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                                        to <emphasis role="strong">Administration</emphasis> and click
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                                        <emphasis role="strong">Network</emphasis>. The
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                                        <emphasis role="strong">Network Settings</emphasis> dialogue box will be
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                                        displayed.</para>
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                                        <figure id="fig:network-menu"><title><emphasis role="italic">Accessing Network Settings</emphasis></title>
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                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
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                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_003.png" format="PNG" />
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                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
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                                        </figure>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Connections</emphasis> page,
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                                        select the connection to use. Click <emphasis role="strong">Properties</emphasis>.                                              The <emphasis role="strong">eth0 Properties</emphasis> dialogue box will be displayed.</para>
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                                        <figure id="fig:network-settings"><title><emphasis role="italic">Network Settings</emphasis></title>
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                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
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                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_004.png" format="PNG" />
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                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
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                                        </figure>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                        <listitem><para>Clear the <emphasis role="strong">Enable roaming mode</emphasis>
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                                        check box to enable the connection.</para>
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                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
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                                        <para>Your Internet Service Provider (ISP) or network administrator should provide you with 
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                                        an IP address, subnet mask and gateway address which need to be specified in the
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                                        connection information.</para></note>
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                                        <orderedlist numeration="loweralpha">
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                                                <listitem>
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                                                        <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Configuration</emphasis> box,
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                                                        select the <emphasis role="strong">Static IP address</emphasis>
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                                                        option.</para>
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                                                        </listitem>
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                                                        <listitem><para>Type the IP address of your computer in the
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                                                        <emphasis role="strong">IP address</emphasis> box.</para></listitem>
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                                                        <listitem><para>Type the subnetwork (subnet) mask of your computer's
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                                                        IP address in the <emphasis role="strong">Subnet mask</emphasis>
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                                                        box.</para>
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                                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
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                                                        <para>A subnet mask divides a network of IP
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                                                        addresses into groups, which facilitates routing
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                                                        of data.</para></note>
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                                                        </listitem>
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                                                        <listitem><para>Type the IP address of your ISP in the
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                                                        <emphasis role="strong">Gateway address</emphasis> box.</para>
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                                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
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                                                        <para>A gateway is a device that connects a user to the Internet.
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                                                        It is provided by the ISP.</para></note>
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                                                        <figure id="fig:eth0"><title><emphasis role="italic">eth0 Properties</emphasis></title>
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                                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
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                                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_005.png" format="PNG" />
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                                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
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                                                        </figure>
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                                                        </listitem>
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                                                </orderedlist>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                        <listitem><para>Click <emphasis role="strong">OK</emphasis> to complete the
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                                        configuration for the cable connection.</para>
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                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Network Settings</emphasis></title>
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                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
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                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_006.png" format="PNG" />
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                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
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                                                </figure> 
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                                        <para>Now, you can connect to the Internet by using the cable.</para>
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                                </listitem>
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                                </orderedlist>
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                        </sect2>
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                        <sect2>
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                                <title>Using a Wireless Card</title>
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                                <para>Ubuntu automatically detects support for various wireless cards. To determine
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                                whether Ubuntu supports the wireless card on your computer:</para>
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                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
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                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> menu, point
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                                        to <emphasis role="strong">Administration</emphasis> and then click
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                                        <emphasis role="strong">Network</emphasis>. The <emphasis role="strong">Network
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                                        Settings</emphasis> dialogue box will be displayed.</para></listitem>
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                                        <listitem><para>If the wireless card on your computer is listed, you can use
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                                        the same procedure as listed in the <emphasis role="strong">Using Cable Connection</emphasis>
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                                        section to connect to the Internet.</para>
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                                        <figure id="fig:wireless"><title><emphasis role="italic">Choosing a Wireless Connection</emphasis></title>
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                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
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                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_007.png" format="PNG" />
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                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
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                                </figure>
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                                <para>Alternatively, left-click on Network Manager and discover any detected wireless                                   networks in range.</para>
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                                </listitem>
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                                </orderedlist>
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                                <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
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                                <para>To view the complete list of wireless cards that work with Ubuntu, refer to:
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                                <ulink url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/WifiDocs/WirelessCardsSupported">https://help.ubuntu.com/community/WifiDocs/WirelessCardsSupported</ulink></para></tip>
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                                <para>Some wireless cards are not listed on the Ubuntu Web site because
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                                open source drivers for these are not available. Therefore, these
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                                cards do not work automatically with Ubuntu. If your wireless network card
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                                does not have an open source driver, you can make it work by using
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                                ndiswrapper.</para>
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                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Using Ndiswrapper with a Wireless Card</emphasis></para>
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                                <para>Ndiswrapper is a Linux module that allows Ubuntu to use Microsoft Windows drivers for wireless cards.
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                                The utility to configure ndiswrapper can be installed comfortably via <emphasis role="strong">Add/Remove Applications</emphasis>. The <emphasis role="strong">Windows Wireless Drivers</emphasis> setup programme can be found in <emphasis role="strong">System Administration</emphasis>.</para>
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                        </sect2>
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                        <sect2>
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                                <title>Using a Dial-up Connection</title>
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                                <para>A dial-up connection uses a modem to connect to the Internet. You can use
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                                the ScanModem tool to identify the type of modem. This tool recognises the type
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                                of modem-whether it is a Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) or a Universal
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                                Serial Bus (USB) modem. </para>
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                                <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
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                                <para>To download the ScanModem tool, refer to:
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                                <ulink url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/DialupModemHowto/ScanModem">https://help.ubuntu.com/community/DialupModemHowto/ScanModem</ulink></para></tip>
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                                <para>To use a dial-up connection:</para>
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                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
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                                        <listitem><para>Download, configure and install your modem's driver. If an
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                                        open source driver is not available, contact your vendor for other
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                                        options.</para>
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                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
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                                        <para>To download the open source driver, refer to
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                                        <ulink url="www.modemdriver.com">www.modemdriver.com</ulink>.</para></note>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                        <listitem><para>Configure the dial-up connection to your ISP:</para>
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                                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
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                                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
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                                                        menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Administration</emphasis>
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                                                        and click <emphasis role="strong">Network</emphasis>. The
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                                                        <emphasis role="strong">Network Settings</emphasis> dialogue box
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                                                        will be displayed.</para></listitem>
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                                                        <listitem><para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Network Settings</emphasis>
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                                                        dialogue box, select <emphasis role="strong">Modem connection</emphasis>
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                                                        and click <emphasis role="strong">Properties.</emphasis> The
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                                                        <emphasis role="strong">ppp0 Properties</emphasis>
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                                                        dialogue box will be displayed.</para>
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                                                <figure id="fig:modem"><title><emphasis role="italic">Network Settings</emphasis></title>
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                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
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                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_009.png" format="PNG" />
200
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
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                                                </figure>
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                                                        </listitem>
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                                                        <listitem><para>In the <emphasis role="strong">ppp0 Properties</emphasis>
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                                                        dialogue box, select the <emphasis role="strong">Enable this connection</emphasis>
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                                                        check box to activate the connection.</para></listitem>
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                                                </orderedlist>
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                                                <orderedlist numeration="loweralpha">
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                                                        <listitem><para>Specify your ISP's information and your account
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                                                        information, which you can obtain form your ISP.</para>
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                                                        <para>Type the phone number in the <emphasis role="strong">Phone number</emphasis>
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                                                        and the dial prefix in the <emphasis role="strong">Dial prefix</emphasis>
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                                                        box, which the modem uses to connect to the server. Type your dial-up
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                                                        account name in the <emphasis role="strong">Username</emphasis> box
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                                                        and the password in the <emphasis role="strong">Password</emphasis>
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                                                        box. The user name is the one that is registered with your ISP.</para>
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                                                        </listitem>
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                                                        <listitem><para>Specify the modem setting on the Modem tabbed page. Click the
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                                                        <emphasis role="strong">Modem</emphasis> tab. Type or select the modem port in the
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                                                        <emphasis role="strong">Modem port</emphasis> box. Select the dial type from the
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                                                        <emphasis role="strong">Dial type</emphasis> box. You can select the types of phone
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                                                        dial used in the <emphasis role="strong">Dial type</emphasis> box. Dial type depends
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                                                        on your phone company and may be <emphasis role="strong">Tones</emphasis> or
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                                                        <emphasis role="strong">Pulses</emphasis>. If you do not know which dial type to choose,
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                                                        contact your phone company. Irrespective of the dial type, the modem will make some noise
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                                                        while connecting to the ISP server. You can set the volume of this noise by selecting the
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                                                        appropriate volume options from the <emphasis role="strong">Volume</emphasis> box-it is
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                                                        recommended that you select <emphasis role="strong">Off</emphasis> or
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                                                        <emphasis role="strong">Low</emphasis>.</para>
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                                                        </listitem>
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                                                        <listitem><para>Specify the connection settings. Click the
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                                                        <emphasis role="strong">Options</emphasis> tab and select the <emphasis role="strong">Set
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                                                        modem as default route to Internet</emphasis> check box to specify the dial-up modem as
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                                                        the default Internet connection. If you use a laptop on a local area network (LAN), clear
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                                                        the <emphasis role="strong">Set modem as default route to Internet</emphasis> check box. Select this option only if you use
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                                                        a dial-up connection.</para>
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                                                        <para>As part of modem connection settings, you need to assign a host name to an IP
238
 
                                                        node to identify it as a TCP/IP host. You can select your ISP server for this name
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                                                        resolution of hosts, which maps a host name to an IP address successfully.
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                                                        For this, select the <emphasis role="strong">Use the Internet service provider
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                                                        nameservers</emphasis> check box.</para>
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                                                        <para>If the Internet connection breaks, your modem will automatically try reconnecting
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                                                        to the Internet if the <emphasis role="strong">Retry if the connection breaks or fails
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                                                        to start</emphasis> check box is selected.</para></listitem>
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                                                        <listitem><para>Click <emphasis role="strong">OK</emphasis> to complete the dial-up
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                                                        configuration.</para>
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                                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">pppo Properties</emphasis></title>
248
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
249
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_010.png" format="PNG" />
250
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
251
 
                                                        </figure>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                                </orderedlist>
254
 
                                        </listitem>
255
 
                                </orderedlist>
256
 
                                <para>Now, you can connect to the Internet using a dial-up connection.</para>
257
 
                        
258
 
                                <instructornote><title>Instructor Notes:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">If students need to connect to the Internet with the modem integrated
259
 
                                into a mobile phone or configure Point-to-Point (PPP) dial-up through a Bluetooth-compatible mobile
260
 
                                phone, refer to: <ulink url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/BluetoothDialup">https://help.ubuntu.com/community/BluetoothDialup</ulink></emphasis></para>
261
 
                                <para><emphasis role="italic">To connect to the Internet through a mobile phone over a USB cable, refer to:
262
 
                                <ulink url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/CableDialup">https://help.ubuntu.com/community/CableDialup</ulink></emphasis></para>
263
 
                                </instructornote>
264
 
                        </sect2>
265
 
                </sect1>
266
 
                <sect1>
267
 
                        <title>Browsing the Web</title>
268
 
                        <para>Mozilla Firefox is the default Web browsing client on Ubuntu. It is open sourced, developed by the Mozilla Corporation and many 
269
 
                        external contributors and is fully compatible with Ubuntu. To open a Firefox Web browser, on the
270
 
                        <emphasis role="strong">Applications</emphasis> menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Internet</emphasis>
271
 
                        and click <emphasis role="strong">Firefox Web Browser</emphasis>.
272
 
                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Firefox Web Browser</emphasis></title>
273
 
                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
274
 
                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_011.png" format="PNG" />
275
 
                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
276
 
                        </figure>
277
 
                        </para>
278
 
                        <para>In addition to typical Web browser features, Firefox includes two powerful features that make your
279
 
                        online experience more productive - an integrated search system and live bookmarking.</para>
280
 
                        <instructornote><title>Instructor Notes:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">Ask students to open this browser and try performing a search.</emphasis></para>
281
 
                        </instructornote>
282
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Integrated Search</emphasis></para>
283
 
                        <para>Firefox includes an integrated search feature that enables you to search for and find any information.
284
 
                        The Search bar comes pre-loaded with search engines for Google, Yahoo!, Amazon, eBay, Answers.com and
285
 
                        Creative Commons. You can enter a search term in the Search bar and receive immediate answers from the
286
 
                        search engine you choose. You can select a new search engine from the Search bar menu at any time and add
287
 
                        search engines from favourite Web sites.
288
 
                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Available Search Engines</emphasis></title>
289
 
                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
290
 
                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_012.png" format="PNG" />
291
 
                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
292
 
                        </figure>
293
 
                        </para>
294
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Search Suggestions</emphasis></para>
295
 
                        <para>To further ease your search-related tasks, some search engines such as Google, Yahoo and Answers.com
296
 
                        in Firefox, suggest search terms. Begin typing into the Search bar and a list of suggestions will
297
 
                        appear.</para>
298
 
                        <para>For example, if you type <emphasis role="strong">king</emphasis> in the Search bar, a list of
299
 
                        suggestions to complete your search keyword is displayed. So instead of typing the complete term, you
300
 
                        can select the required term from the list. This makes the search easy and quick.</para>
301
 
                        <para>The following graphic shows a list of suggestions, when you start typing in the Search bar:</para>
302
 
                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">List of Suggestions</emphasis></title>
303
 
                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
304
 
                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_013.png" format="PNG" />
305
 
                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
306
 
                        </figure>
307
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Live Bookmarks</emphasis></para>
308
 
                        <para>If you come across an interesting Web site over the Internet and would like to keep it for future
309
 
                        reference, without trying to remember the URL, create a bookmark. The next time you are online,
310
 
                        simply click the link to go to that Web page. You can view Web feeds such as news and blog headlines
311
 
                        in the bookmarks toolbar or menu. A Web feed or feed is an XML Web page that contains a list of links
312
 
                        to other Web pages. You can quickly review the latest headlines from your favourite sites and click to
313
 
                        go directly to chapters of interest.</para>
314
 
                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
315
 
                        <para>A Bookmark in Firefox, similar to favourites in Internet
316
 
                        Explorer, is a useful browser feature.</para></note>
317
 
                        <para>To create a live bookmark in Firefox:</para>
318
 
                        <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
319
 
                                <listitem><para>Open the Firefox Web browser. On the <emphasis role="strong">Bookmarks</emphasis> menu, click <emphasis role="strong">Organise Bookmarks</emphasis>.</para> 
320
 
                                <para>The <emphasis role="strong">Bookmarks Manager</emphasis> window will be displayed.</para>
321
 
                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Organising Bookmarks</emphasis></title>
322
 
                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
323
 
                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_014.png" format="PNG" />
324
 
                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
325
 
                                </figure>
326
 
                                </listitem>
327
 
                                <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">File</emphasis> menu, click <emphasis role="strong">New
328
 
                                Live Bookmark</emphasis>. The <emphasis role="strong">Properties for New Bookmark</emphasis>
329
 
                                dialogue box will be displayed.</para>
330
 
                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Adding Live Bookmarks</emphasis></title>
331
 
                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
332
 
                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_015.png" format="PNG" />
333
 
                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
334
 
                                </figure>
335
 
                                </listitem>
336
 
                                <listitem><para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Name</emphasis> box, type the name you want to give to the
337
 
                                feed. Make sure that the name reflects the contents of the Web site and includes enough information
338
 
                                to uniquely identify the data file. Type the feed location-the URL of the feed in the <emphasis role="strong">Feed Location</emphasis>
339
 
                                box and the description of the feed in the <emphasis role="strong">Description</emphasis> box. If
340
 
                                you want, you can skip giving the description, though these can be used to categorise various feeds
341
 
                                under groups. Click <emphasis role="strong">OK</emphasis> and close the <emphasis role="strong">
342
 
                                Bookmarks Manager</emphasis> window. This sets the bookmark.</para>
343
 
                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Viewing Bookmark Properties</emphasis></title>
344
 
                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
345
 
                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_016.png" format="PNG" />
346
 
                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
347
 
                                </figure>
348
 
                                </listitem>
349
 
                                <listitem><para>In the Firefox Web browser, on the <emphasis role="strong">Bookmarks</emphasis> menu,
350
 
                                point to <emphasis role="strong">New Live Bookmark</emphasis>. This displays the list of feeds, their
351
 
                                respective locations and description. To locate the one you are looking for, you can sort this
352
 
                                list on name, location or description. Just click the one you want to quickly browse through.
353
 
                                It opens in the Mozilla Firefox window.</para>
354
 
                                </listitem>
355
 
                        </orderedlist>
356
 
                        </sect1>
357
 
                        <sect1>
358
 
                        <title>Accessing News</title>
359
 
                        <para>News can be retrieved from the Internet in different ways. Using Usenet and RSS for access is covered below.</para>
360
 
                        <para>Newsgroups are online notice boards where people post comments and discuss subjects of mutual interest. They are technically distinct from, 
361
 
                        but functionally similar to discussion forums on the World Wide Web.  Anyone can participate in the discussion and post thoughts. At the rate at which newsgroups 
362
 
                        are growing, it is safe to say that there are groups covering most subjects imaginable; from computers to social issues, pet advice, literature and science,
363
 
                        job postings and housing to rent etc.
364
 
                        It is a fast and easy way to communicate, share views and advertise to people all over the world. Newsreaders are the applications used to access newsgroups.</para>
365
 
                        <para>USEr NETwork (Usenet) is the main source of newsgroups and newsfeeds. It is an Internet discussion system where people read and post e-mail-like 
366
 
                        messages called posts to one or more of a number of newsgroups.</para> 
367
 
                        <para>To join a newsgroup, you create a subscribed list and your newsreader stores the information. You will receive alerts when people have posted new listings 
368
 
                        and when you check to read the latest update, there will be a posting and bunch of messages from several people. You will see something that looks similar to your e-mail inbox.
369
 
                        You can decide whether to reply to the newsgroup, the author or to both. Some people prefer not to constantly receive email messages and log in
370
 
                        from time to time to see the latest updates. The news server posts do expire after a certain length of time, as determined by the person running the server.</para>                     
371
 
                        <para>There are two types of newsreaders, online and offline. The online newsreader downloads just the message headers, and you see 
372
 
                        what looks like a mailbox. The messages themselves however, are not on your machine. As you access a particular message,
373
 
                        the newsreader retrieves it from the server. When you are done reading a message, it is not stored on your machine, 
374
 
                        unless you save it specifically. Offline newsreaders, on the other hand, connect to the server, download all new messages for the newsgroups to which you 
375
 
                        are subscribed, upload any posts you wrote since the last time you connected to the server, and then disconnect. You can then read the messages as you 
376
 
                        wish, composing replies and new posts to be uploaded next time you choose to connect. </para>
377
 
                        <para>Many news related Web sites do offer news feeds that allow you to see when Web sites have added new content. 
378
 
                        You can get the latest headlines and video in one place, as soon as it is published, without having to visit the Websites you have taken the feed from. 
379
 
                        Feeds, also known as Really Simple Syndication (RSS), are just Web pages.</para>
380
 
                        <para>In this section we will cover two types of Newsreaders, Linux Feed Reader (Liferea) for news feeds and Thunderbird for Usenet news.</para>
381
 
                                <sect2>
382
 
                                <title>Liferea Newsreader</title>
383
 
                                <instructornote><title>Instructor Notes:</title><para><emphasis role="italic"> While teaching, demonstrate how to access Liferea and
384
 
                                Thunderbird.</emphasis></para></instructornote>
385
 
                                <para>Liferea is an online RSS feed reader. It is a fast, easy-to-use and easy-to-install
386
 
                                news accumulator for GTK/GNOME.</para>
387
 
                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
388
 
                                <para>You can install Liferea on Ubuntu using the Synaptic
389
 
                                Package Manager by following the procedure described in
390
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">Using Alternative E-Mail Client</emphasis>
391
 
                                section.</para></note>
392
 
                                <para>The Web sites that offer RSS feeds display an RSS feed symbol next to its URL.</para>
393
 
                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Identifying RSS Feed Providing Web Sites</emphasis></title>
394
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
395
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_017.png" format="PNG" />
396
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
397
 
                                </figure>
398
 
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Accessing Liferea </emphasis></para>
399
 
                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
400
 
                                <para>You have to search the Web site that offers RSS feeds to access Liferea. Look through the complete
401
 
                                list of newsgroups on your server to search for the group that interests you. Alternatively, a friend
402
 
                                interested in this group can inform you.</para></note>
403
 
                                <para>To access Liferea:</para>
404
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
405
 
                                        <listitem><para>Open the Web page that offers RSS feeds.</para>
406
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Opening RSS Feed Web Page</emphasis></title>
407
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
408
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_018.png" format="PNG" />
409
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
410
 
                                        </figure>
411
 
                                        </listitem>
412
 
                                        <listitem><para>On this Web page, search for the link that offers RSS feed. Click the link and save
413
 
                                        the URL of that link. This URL will be the feed.</para>
414
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Searching the Link</emphasis></title>
415
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
416
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_019.png" format="PNG" />
417
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
418
 
                                        </figure>
419
 
                                        </listitem>
420
 
                                        <listitem><para>Open Liferea. On the <emphasis role="strong">Applications</emphasis> menu, point to
421
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Internet</emphasis> and click <emphasis role="strong">Liferea Feed Reader.</emphasis></para>
422
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Liferea Feed Reader</emphasis></title>
423
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
424
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_020.png" format="PNG" />
425
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
426
 
                                        </figure>
427
 
                                        </listitem>
428
 
                                        <listitem><para>To subscribe to the feed, right-click anywhere on the left-pane of Liferea window,
429
 
                                        point to New and click <emphasis role="strong">New Subscription</emphasis>. The
430
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">New Subscription</emphasis> dialogue box will be displayed.</para>
431
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Subscribing to RSS Feeds</emphasis></title>
432
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
433
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_021.png" format="PNG" />
434
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
435
 
                                        </figure>
436
 
                                        </listitem>
437
 
                                        <listitem><para>In the <emphasis role="strong">New Subscription</emphasis> dialogue box, paste the
438
 
                                        URL, which is the feed, and click <emphasis role="strong">OK</emphasis>. You will see a new feed in
439
 
                                        the <emphasis role="strong">Liferea</emphasis> window.</para>
440
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Entering Feed Source</emphasis></title>
441
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
442
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_022.png" format="PNG" />
443
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
444
 
                                        </figure>
445
 
                                        <para>The following graphic shows the new feed in Liferea.</para>
446
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Viewing New Feeds</emphasis></title>
447
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
448
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_023.png" format="PNG" />
449
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
450
 
                                        </figure>
451
 
                                        </listitem>
452
 
                                </orderedlist>
453
 
                                <para>The key features of Liferea are as follows:</para>
454
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
455
 
                                        <listitem><para>Liferea Feed Reader has multiple RSS subscriptions by default.</para></listitem>
456
 
                                        <listitem><para>If you do not want an chapter to be deleted after some time, you can flag it
457
 
                                        and tag it as an important item.</para></listitem>
458
 
                                        <listitem><para>You can use the search function to search through the downloaded items to quickly
459
 
                                        access the information needed.</para></listitem>
460
 
                                        <listitem><para>You can also use an online search engine to search for news other than ones already
461
 
                                        downloaded.</para></listitem>
462
 
                                </orderedlist>
463
 
                                <instructornote><title>Instructor Notes:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">The change in feeds properties is required
464
 
                                if it needs HTTP authentication or other feed specific options.</emphasis></para>
465
 
                                </instructornote>
466
 
                                </sect2>
467
 
                                <sect2>
468
 
                                <title>Thunderbird</title>
469
 
                                <para>To use Thunderbird to access news groups, perform the following steps:</para>
470
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
471
 
                                        <listitem><para>When you open Thunderbird for the first time, the <emphasis role="strong">Account
472
 
                                        Wizard</emphasis> helps you to configure an account. On the <emphasis role="strong">New Account Setup
473
 
                                        </emphasis> page, select <emphasis role="strong">Newsgroup account</emphasis> option and click
474
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Next</emphasis>. This page informs you about how this wizard will collect
475
 
                                        information to set up a mail or a newsgroup account. You can also contact the system administrator
476
 
                                        or the ISP for information.</para>
477
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Creating Thunderbird Newsgroup Account</emphasis></title>
478
 
                                                <mediaobject>
479
 
                                                <imageobject>
480
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_024.png" format="PNG" /></imageobject>
481
 
                                                </mediaobject>
482
 
                                        </figure>
483
 
                                        </listitem>
484
 
                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Identity</emphasis> page, in the
485
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Your Name</emphasis> box, type your name that you would like to use
486
 
                                        when sending messages and in the <emphasis role="strong">Email Address</emphasis> box, type the
487
 
                                        e-mail address where you would like others to send you e-mail messages. Click
488
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Next</emphasis>.</para>
489
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Creating Account Identity</emphasis></title>
490
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
491
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_025.png" format="PNG" />
492
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
493
 
                                        </figure>
494
 
                                        </listitem>
495
 
                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Server Information</emphasis> page, type the name
496
 
                                        of your newsgroup server in the <emphasis role="strong">Newsgroup Server</emphasis> box. You can
497
 
                                        also type the server address here instead of the server name. Then, click
498
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Next</emphasis>. This server name will connect you to different
499
 
                                        newsgroups.</para>
500
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Providing Newsgroup Server Information</emphasis></title>
501
 
 
502
 
                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
503
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_026.png" format="PNG" />
504
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
505
 
                                        </figure>
506
 
                                        </listitem>
507
 
                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Account Name</emphasis> dialogue box, type the account
508
 
                                        name in the <emphasis role="strong">Account Name</emphasis> box. This name is for your reference only.
509
 
                                        Click <emphasis role="strong">Next</emphasis>.</para>
510
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Specifying Account Name</emphasis></title>
511
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
512
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_027.png" format="PNG" />
513
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
514
 
                                        </figure>
515
 
                                        </listitem>
516
 
                                        <listitem><para>You have completed setting up a newsgroup account. Make sure you verify the
517
 
                                        information before you exit this wizard. Navigate through the pages using the
518
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Next</emphasis> and <emphasis role="strong">Back</emphasis> buttons
519
 
                                        and make appropriate changes, if required. Otherwise, click <emphasis role="strong">Finish</emphasis>
520
 
                                        to save the settings. The <emphasis role="strong">News Account-Thunderbird window</emphasis> will
521
 
                                        be displayed.</para>
522
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Account Information</emphasis></title>
523
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
524
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_028.png" format="PNG" />
525
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
526
 
                                        </figure>
527
 
                                        </listitem>
528
 
                                        <listitem><para>In the <emphasis role="strong">News Account-Thunderbird</emphasis> window, click
529
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Manage newsgroup subscriptions</emphasis> to subscribe to a newsgroup. The
530
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Subscribe</emphasis> dialogue box will be displayed.</para>
531
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Subscribing to a Newsgroup</emphasis></title>
532
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
533
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_029.png" format="PNG" />
534
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
535
 
                                        </figure>
536
 
                                        </listitem>
537
 
                                        <listitem><para>Several newsgroups will be downloaded from the server address you mentioned
538
 
                                        during the configuration process.</para>
539
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Viewing the Download Process</emphasis></title>
540
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
541
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_030.png" format="PNG" />
542
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
543
 
                                        </figure>
544
 
                                        </listitem>
545
 
                                        <listitem><para>If you want to subscribe to a newsgroup on some specific subject, you can search your
546
 
                                        search criterion. Type the search term in <emphasis role="strong">the Show items that contain
547
 
                                        </emphasis> box. The newsgroups related to the search term will be displayed in the
548
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Select the newsgroups to subscribe to list</emphasis>. Select any newsgroup
549
 
                                        from the displayed list and click <emphasis role="strong">Subscribe</emphasis> to subscribe to that
550
 
                                        newsgroup. Click <emphasis role="strong">OK</emphasis> to close the <emphasis role="strong">Subscribe
551
 
                                        </emphasis> dialogue box.</para>
552
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting the Newsgroup to Subscribe</emphasis></title>
553
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
554
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_031.png" format="PNG" />
555
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
556
 
                                        </figure>
557
 
                                        </listitem>
558
 
                                        <listitem><para>After the subscription is completed, you will start receiving newsletters from the
559
 
                                        subscribed newsgroup. The following graphic shows the newsgroup and related e-mail messages in the
560
 
                                        Thunderbird window:</para>
561
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Viewing Newsgroup E-mails</emphasis></title>
562
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
563
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_032.png" format="PNG" />
564
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
565
 
                                        </figure>
566
 
                                        <para>When you open Thunderbird to read news letters, there will be a bunch of messages from several
567
 
                                        people. You can read these messages just like e-mail messages. The difference is that the message
568
 
                                        is addressed to the group you were interested in and not to you. Similarly, if you select posting
569
 
                                        a message in response to a message you are reading, you need to decide whether to reply to the
570
 
                                        newsgroup, to the author or to both.</para>
571
 
                                        <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
572
 
                                        <para>Pan Newsreader is another news reader that works with Usenet. It is
573
 
                                        an open source newsgroup client, which is available for various platforms.
574
 
                                        You can install Pan Newsreader from Synaptic Package Manager on Ubuntu.</para></tip>
575
 
                                        </listitem>
576
 
                                </orderedlist>
577
 
                        </sect2>
578
 
                        </sect1>
579
 
                        <sect1>
580
 
                        <title>Sending and Receiving E-Mail Messages</title>
581
 
                        <para>Ubuntu comes with the Evolution e-mail client which combines mail, calendar, and tasks in one powerful application. 
582
 
                        Besides Evolution Ubuntu offers more e-mail clients, that can be easily installed through Add/Remove Programmes. Evolution
583
 
                         and Thunderbird will be discussed below.</para>
584
 
                        <sect2>
585
 
                                <title>Using Evolution Mail</title>
586
 
                                <instructornote><title>Instructor Notes:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">The focus of this section is to
587
 
                                configure Evolution e-mail client with Post Office Protocol (POP)
588
 
                                as the sending server. If the students want to learn more, they can
589
 
                                refer to: <ulink url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/EmailClients">https://help.ubuntu.com/community/EmailClients</ulink>.</emphasis></para>
590
 
                                </instructornote>
591
 
                                <para>To configure the Evolution e-mail client on Ubuntu:</para>
592
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
593
 
                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Applications</emphasis> menu, point to
594
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Internet</emphasis> and click <emphasis role="strong">Evolution Mail
595
 
                                        </emphasis>.</para>
596
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Evolution Mail</emphasis></title>
597
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
598
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_033.png" format="PNG" />
599
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
600
 
                                        </figure>
601
 
                                        <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
602
 
                                        <para>The <emphasis role="strong">.evolution</emphasis> directory is
603
 
                                        created in the home directory when you run Evolution for the first
604
 
                                        time. It saves its local data in this directory. Then, it opens a
605
 
                                        first-run assistant to help you set up the e-mail accounts. User specific settings
606
 
                                        for evolution are also stored in 
607
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">.gconf/apps/evolution</emphasis>.</para></tip>
608
 
                                        <para>The <emphasis role="strong">Evolution Setup Assistant</emphasis> is
609
 
                                        displayed, which guides you through various steps to enable Evolution to
610
 
                                        connect to your e-mail accounts and import files from other applications.
611
 
                                        Click <emphasis role="strong">Forward</emphasis>.</para>
612
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Configuring New E-mail Account</emphasis></title>
613
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
614
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_034.png" format="PNG" />
615
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
616
 
                                        </figure>
617
 
                                        </listitem>
618
 
                                        <listitem>
619
 
                                        <para>Evolution offers an integrated backup system from Ubuntu 7.10 onward. If you migrate your Evolution data from one system to another, use this dialogue. On the <emphasis role="strong">Restore from backup</emphasis> page, you can restore the backup files such as, e-mails, memos, address book, personal files and many more from your older version of Evolution.</para>
620
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Restoring Evolution</emphasis></title>
621
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
622
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_035.png" format="PNG" />
623
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
624
 
                                        </figure>
625
 
                                        </listitem>
626
 
                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Identity</emphasis> page, type your full name in the
627
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Full Name</emphasis> box and your e-mail address in the
628
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">E-mail Address</emphasis> box. This is the e-mail address that your ISP
629
 
                                        provides. Your Evolution account is configured with this information. Click
630
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Forward</emphasis>.</para>
631
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Setting up Account Identity</emphasis></title>
632
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
633
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_036.png" format="PNG" />
634
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
635
 
                                        </figure>
636
 
                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
637
 
                                        <para>You can skip the information in the <emphasis role="strong">
638
 
                                        Optional Information</emphasis> section. You are required to type
639
 
                                        the information in the <emphasis role="strong">Reply-To</emphasis>
640
 
                                        and <emphasis role="strong">Organisation</emphasis> boxes, only if
641
 
                                        you want to include this in the e-mail messages you send. In
642
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Reply-To</emphasis> box, you can type your
643
 
                                        name, favourite quotes or any other information and, in the
644
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Organisation</emphasis> box, type any name
645
 
                                        such as that of your organisation, school or college.</para></note>
646
 
                                        </listitem>
647
 
                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Receiving E-mail</emphasis> page, in the
648
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Server Type</emphasis> box select the type of server your ISP provides.
649
 
                                        Evolution is compatible with numerous server types, but POP is commonly used to receive
650
 
                                        e-mail messages.</para>
651
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting Server Type for Receiving E-Mail</emphasis></title>
652
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
653
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_037.png" format="PNG" />
654
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
655
 
                                        </figure>
656
 
                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
657
 
                                        <para>If you do not know the server information, you can
658
 
                                        contact your system administrator or ISP.</para></note>
659
 
                                        <orderedlist numeration="loweralpha">
660
 
                                                <listitem><para>Select <emphasis role="strong">POP</emphasis> from the
661
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Server Type</emphasis> box to connect to and download mail from POP
662
 
                                                servers. The Receiving E-mail page will further prompt you for the configuration
663
 
                                                information.</para>
664
 
                                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
665
 
                                                <para>For more information about server types, refer to:
666
 
                                                <ulink url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/EmailClients">https://help.ubuntu.com/community/EmailClients</ulink></para></note>
667
 
                                                </listitem>
668
 
                                                <listitem><para>Type the receiving e-mail server name in the <emphasis role="strong">Server
669
 
                                                </emphasis> box and your account user name in the <emphasis role="strong">Username</emphasis>
670
 
                                                box. This is not your login name to your PC but your login name to your ISP's e-mail account.
671
 
                                                </para></listitem>
672
 
                                                <listitem><para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Security</emphasis> section, you can select
673
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Encryption</emphasis> or <emphasis role="strong">No encryption
674
 
                                                </emphasis> in the <emphasis role="strong">Use Secure Connection</emphasis> box. Encryption
675
 
                                                makes the message unreadable to anyone other than the intended recipient.</para></listitem>
676
 
                                                <listitem><para>Select <emphasis role="strong">Password</emphasis> in the
677
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Authentication Type</emphasis> box or click <emphasis role="strong">
678
 
                                                Check for Supported Types</emphasis> to have Evolution check for supported authentication
679
 
                                                types. Using the check facility, you can find out the supported authentication types. The
680
 
                                                crossed out authentication types are not supported. Generally, the password is the way you
681
 
                                                authenticate with the server.</para>
682
 
                                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
683
 
                                                <para>Contact your system administrator or ISP to know about the
684
 
                                                authentication type supported.</para></note>
685
 
                                                </listitem>
686
 
                                                <listitem><para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Forward</emphasis>.</para></listitem>
687
 
                                        </orderedlist>
688
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Providing POP Server Information</emphasis></title>
689
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
690
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_038.png" format="PNG" />
691
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
692
 
                                                </figure>
693
 
                                        </listitem>
694
 
                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Receiving Options</emphasis> page , select the
695
 
                                        following options, if required:</para>
696
 
                                                <orderedlist numeration="loweralpha">
697
 
                                                        <listitem><para>To automatically check e-mail messages after a particular interval
698
 
                                                        of time, select <emphasis role="strong">Automatically check for new mail every</emphasis>
699
 
                                                        check box. Specify the duration of the interval in the <emphasis role="strong">minutes
700
 
                                                        </emphasis> list.</para></listitem>
701
 
                                                        <listitem><para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Message storage</emphasis> section, select
702
 
                                                        <emphasis role="strong">Leave message on server</emphasis> check box<emphasis role="strong">,
703
 
                                                        </emphasis> if you want to leave a message on the server.</para></listitem>
704
 
                                                        <listitem><para>Select <emphasis role="strong">Disable support for all POP3 extensions
705
 
                                                        </emphasis> check box, if you want to disable POP3.</para></listitem>
706
 
                                                        <listitem><para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Forward</emphasis>.</para></listitem>
707
 
                                                </orderedlist>
708
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Specifying Mail Checking and Storage Options</emphasis></title>
709
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
710
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_039.png" format="PNG" />
711
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
712
 
                                                </figure>
713
 
                                        </listitem>
714
 
                                        <listitem><para>On the Sending E-mail page, specify the information according to the way you want to
715
 
                                        send e-mail messages. Select the outbound mail server in the <emphasis role="strong">Server
716
 
                                        Type</emphasis> box.</para>
717
 
                                        <orderedlist numeration="loweralpha">
718
 
                                                <listitem><para>There are two methods you can use to send e-mail messages, SMTP and 
719
 
                                                Programmes Send Mails. SMTP is the common method that is used to send e-mail messages.
720
 
                                                Select <emphasis role="strong">SMTP</emphasis> as your outbound mail server type in the
721
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Server Type</emphasis> box.</para></listitem>
722
 
                                                <listitem><para>Specify the outbound server configuration:</para>
723
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Providing SMTP Server Information</emphasis></title>
724
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
725
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_040.png" format="PNG" />
726
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
727
 
                                        </figure>
728
 
                                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
729
 
                                                        <listitem><para>Type the host address in the <emphasis role="strong">Server</emphasis> box.
730
 
                                                        This is the address of the outbound server that your ISP provides.</para></listitem>
731
 
                                                        <listitem><para>Specify how you want the server to authenticate. Select
732
 
                                                        <emphasis role="strong">Server requires authentication</emphasis> check box, if
733
 
                                                        your server requires authentication. If you select this check box, you will be
734
 
                                                        asked to select your authentication type in the <emphasis role="strong">Type
735
 
                                                        </emphasis> box. You can also click <emphasis role="strong">Check for Supported
736
 
                                                        Types</emphasis> to have evolution check for supported types.</para>
737
 
                                                        </listitem>
738
 
                                                        <listitem><para>Type the evolution account user name in the <emphasis role="strong">Username                                                            </emphasis> box.</para></listitem>
739
 
                                                        <listitem><para>Select <emphasis role="strong">Remember Password</emphasis> check box, if
740
 
                                                        you want evolution to remember your password. Then, click
741
 
                                                        <emphasis role="strong">Forward</emphasis>. The <emphasis role="strong">Account
742
 
                                                        Management</emphasis> page is displayed.</para></listitem>
743
 
                                                        </orderedlist>
744
 
                                                </listitem>
745
 
                                                </orderedlist>
746
 
                                        </listitem>
747
 
                                        <listitem><para>It is possible for Evolution to access multiple e-mail providers. To differentiate
748
 
                                        between them, you can give each e-mail provider a name. Type a name for this configuration or your
749
 
                                        account in the <emphasis role="strong">Name</emphasis> box. You can type any name you prefer as this
750
 
                                        is only for your reference. Then, click <emphasis role="strong">Forward</emphasis>.</para>
751
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Providing Account Information</emphasis></title>
752
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
753
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_041.png" format="PNG" />
754
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
755
 
                                        </figure>
756
 
                                        </listitem>
757
 
                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Timezone</emphasis> page, select the time zone you
758
 
                                        are in either on the map or from the <emphasis role="strong">Selection</emphasis> list. Click
759
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Forward</emphasis>.</para>
760
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Specifying Timezone</emphasis></title>
761
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
762
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_042.png" format="PNG" />
763
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
764
 
                                        </figure>
765
 
                                        </listitem>
766
 
                                        <listitem><para>Configuration is done. Click <emphasis role="strong">Apply</emphasis> to save your
767
 
                                        settings. The Evolution window will be displayed.</para>
768
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Evolution</emphasis></title>
769
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
770
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_043.png" format="PNG" />
771
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
772
 
                                        </figure>
773
 
                                        </listitem>
774
 
                                </orderedlist>
775
 
                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
776
 
                                <para>For more information on how to use the Evolution e-mail client, refer to:
777
 
                                <ulink url="https://help.ubuntu.com/7.04/internet/C/email.html">https://help.ubuntu.com/7.04/internet/C/email.html</ulink></para></note>
778
 
                        </sect2>
779
 
                        <sect2>
780
 
                                <title>Using an Alternative E-Mail Client</title>
781
 
                                <para>In addition to Evolution, you can use many other e-mail clients, such as
782
 
                                Mozilla Thunderbird, Balsa and Pine. If you have been using the Mozilla
783
 
                                Suite, you may prefer to use Thunderbird which is very similar. Try them both and
784
 
                                see which you prefer. Mozilla Thunderbird is an e-mail application developed
785
 
                                by Mozilla Foundation. It is a free, cross-platform e-mail and news application.</para>
786
 
                                <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
787
 
                                <para>Mozilla Suite is a cohesive collection of integrated Internet
788
 
                                applications, including a Web browser, e-mail and newsgroup client, Internet Relay Chat (IRC) chat
789
 
                                client, address book organizer and Web page creation utility.</para></tip>
790
 
                                <para>The Thunderbird e-mail application is available in the Universe   
791
 
                                repository and can be installed on your computer from the Synaptic Package
792
 
                                Manager.</para>
793
 
                                <para>To install Thunderbird on Ubuntu, perform the following steps:</para>
794
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
795
 
                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> menu, point to
796
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Administration</emphasis> and select <emphasis role="strong">Synaptic
797
 
                                        Package Manager</emphasis>. The <emphasis role="strong">Synaptic Package Manager</emphasis> window
798
 
                                        will be displayed.</para>
799
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Synaptic Package Manager</emphasis></title>
800
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
801
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_044.png" format="PNG" />
802
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
803
 
                                        </figure>
804
 
                                        </listitem>
805
 
                                        <listitem><para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Synaptic Package Manager</emphasis>
806
 
                                        dialogue box, you can select the package you need. The left pane lists the
807
 
                                        categories, and the right pane lists the packages. You can search for the
808
 
                                        package by clicking Search and specifying its name. If you do not know the
809
 
                                        name of the package, select the category in the left pane to filter the list
810
 
                                        of packages. You can then select the check box next to the required package
811
 
                                        in the right pane.</para>
812
 
                                        <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
813
 
                                        <para>If you want to view the installed and uninstalled packages, click
814
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Status</emphasis>. To know the source repository
815
 
                                        of the package, click <emphasis role="strong">Origin</emphasis>. Click
816
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Custom Filters</emphasis> if you want to know 
817
 
                                        whether a package is broken or can be upgraded.</para></tip>
818
 
                                        
819
 
                                        </listitem>
820
 
                                        <listitem><para>Since you know the name of the package, you can find it by
821
 
                                        specifying its name. Click <emphasis role="strong">Search</emphasis>. The
822
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Find</emphasis> dialogue box opens. Type the name
823
 
                                        of the package, <emphasis role="strong">Thunderbird</emphasis>, in the
824
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Search</emphasis> field and click
825
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Search</emphasis>. The Mozilla Thunderbird package
826
 
                                        displays in the right pane of the <emphasis role="strong">Synaptic
827
 
                                        Package Manager</emphasis> window. You can view the description of the
828
 
                                        selected package in the bottom pane and check if this package is the one
829
 
                                        that meets your requirement before you initiate the installation process.</para>
830
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Searching Thunderbird</emphasis></title>
831
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
832
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_045.png" format="PNG" />
833
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
834
 
                                        </figure>
835
 
                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
836
 
                                        <para>To return to the list of categories after searching the
837
 
                                        packages using <emphasis role="strong">Search</emphasis>, click
838
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Sections</emphasis>.</para></note>
839
 
                                        </listitem>
840
 
                                        <listitem><para>Select the <emphasis role="strong">Mark for Installation</emphasis>
841
 
                                        check box to install the package.</para>
842
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Marking Thunderbird for Installation</emphasis></title>
843
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
844
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_046.png" format="PNG" />
845
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
846
 
                                        </figure>
847
 
                                        </listitem>
848
 
                                        <listitem><para>The package that you choose to install may depend on other packages. In this case,
849
 
                                        you are notified about the dependencies. To continue making the changes required to resolve the
850
 
                                        dependencies, click <emphasis role="strong">Mark</emphasis>.</para></listitem>
851
 
                                        <listitem><para>To confirm that you want to make the marked changes, click <emphasis role="strong">
852
 
                                        Apply.</emphasis></para>
853
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Confirming Changes</emphasis></title>
854
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
855
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_047.png" format="PNG" />
856
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
857
 
                                        </figure>
858
 
                                        </listitem>
859
 
                                        <listitem><para>The <emphasis role="strong">Summary</emphasis> dialogue box opens, prompting you for
860
 
                                        a final check before making the marked changes. Click <emphasis role="strong">Apply</emphasis> to
861
 
                                        continue with the changes.</para>
862
 
                                        <para>This completes the procedure of installing Thunderbird by using Synaptic Package Manager.
863
 
                                        To access Thunderbird, on the <emphasis role="strong">Applications</emphasis> menu, point to
864
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Internet</emphasis> and click <emphasis role="strong">Mozilla Thunderbird Mail/News
865
 
                                        </emphasis>.</para>
866
 
                                        <para>This displays the Thunderbird window.</para>
867
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Mozilla Thunderbird Mail/News</emphasis></title>
868
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
869
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_048.png" format="PNG" />
870
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
871
 
                                        </figure>
872
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Thunderbird Window</emphasis></title>
873
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
874
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_049.png" format="PNG" />
875
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
876
 
                                        </figure>
877
 
                                        </listitem>
878
 
                                </orderedlist>
879
 
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Features of Thunderbird</emphasis></para>
880
 
                                <para>Thunderbird features many enhancements to help you better manage your inbox, send emails and 
881
 
                                organise your correspondence.</para>
882
 
                                <para>Some of its key features are:</para>
883
 
                                <itemizedlist>
884
 
                                        <listitem><para><emphasis role="strong">Stop Junk Mail</emphasis></para>
885
 
                                        <para>If you are tired of spam and annoying advertising in your Inbox, Mozilla Thunderbird
886
 
                                        provides effective tools for detecting junk mail. These tools analyse your e-mail
887
 
                                        message and identify those that are most likely to be junk. Your junk mail can be automatically
888
 
                                        deleted or placed in a specific folder.</para>
889
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Stopping Junk Mail</emphasis></title>
890
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
891
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_050.png" format="PNG" />
892
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
893
 
                                        </figure>
894
 
                                        <para>To activate the junk mail filters in Thunderbird:</para>
895
 
                                        <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
896
 
                                                <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Tools</emphasis> menu, click
897
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Junk Mail Controls</emphasis>. The <emphasis role="strong">Junk Mail
898
 
                                                Controls</emphasis> window will be displayed.</para></listitem>
899
 
                                                <listitem><para>Click the <emphasis role="strong">Adaptive Filter</emphasis> tab. Select the
900
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Enable adaptive junk mail detection</emphasis> check box and click
901
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">OK</emphasis></para></listitem>
902
 
                                        </orderedlist>
903
 
                                        </listitem>
904
 
                                        <listitem><para><emphasis role="strong">Customise your mail</emphasis></para>
905
 
                                        <para>You have three column views to access you e-mail messages: Classic, Wide and Vertical view.</para>
906
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Customising the E-mail View</emphasis></title>
907
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
908
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_051.png" format="PNG" />
909
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
910
 
                                        </figure>
911
 
                                        </listitem>
912
 
                                        <listitem><para><emphasis role="strong">Built-in Spell Checker</emphasis></para>
913
 
                                        <para>To check for correct spelling, click <emphasis role="strong">Spell</emphasis> on the
914
 
                                        toolbar.</para>
915
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Spell Checker</emphasis></title>
916
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
917
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_052.png" format="PNG" />
918
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
919
 
                                        </figure>
920
 
                                        </listitem>
921
 
                                        <listitem><para><emphasis role="strong">Security</emphasis></para>
922
 
                                        <para>Thunderbird provides enhanced security features, which is equivalent to enterprise and
923
 
                                        government-grade security. It offers built-in support for Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail
924
 
                                        Extensions (S/MIME) secure e-mail message.</para></listitem>
925
 
                                        <listitem><para><emphasis role="strong">Extensions</emphasis></para>
926
 
                                        <para>Extensions are powerful tools to help you build a mail client that meets your specific
927
 
                                        needs. Mozilla Thunderbird has several features, such as quick search, a smart address book,
928
 
                                        advanced message filtering and more.</para></listitem>
929
 
                                        <listitem><para><emphasis role="strong">News Reader</emphasis></para>
930
 
                                        <para>Mozilla Thunderbird makes it easier to subscribe to your favourite newsgroups, downloading headers and messages and offline
931
 
                                        support.</para>
932
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Thunderbird as a Newsgroup</emphasis></title>
933
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
934
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_053.png" format="PNG" />
935
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
936
 
                                        </figure>
937
 
                                        </listitem>
938
 
                                        <listitem><para><emphasis role="strong">Themes</emphasis></para>
939
 
                                        <para>As with most elements on Ubuntu, you can personalise the themes to change the look and feel of Mozilla Thunderbird. A theme
940
 
                                        can change the toolbar icons or the complete appearance of an application.</para>
941
 
                                        </listitem>
942
 
                                        <listitem><para><emphasis role="strong">Cross-Platform Support</emphasis></para>
943
 
                                        <para>Thunderbird is used on various platforms, such as Ubuntu, Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X and Unix-based
944
 
                                        operating systems.</para></listitem>
945
 
                                </itemizedlist>
946
 
                                </sect2>
947
 
                </sect1>
948
 
                <sect1>
949
 
                        <title>Instant Messaging</title>
950
 
                        <para>E-mail message is not expected to be real-time, which means you can respond to it when time allows.
951
 
                        But when 'Immediacy' is required, instant messaging (IM) is the way to go. Using IM over the Internet
952
 
                        can bring down costs of long distance phone calls when you want to stay in contact with friends. While
953
 
                        in office, if you want an answer to a simple question, IM facilitates quick and easy communication and
954
 
                        reduces the amount of e-mail messages sent and received in a day. IM also enables you to view a person
955
 
                        using Web-cams or talk over the Internet for free.</para>
956
 
                        <para>The default instant messenger client on Ubuntu is Pidgin, a cross-platform instant messenger that
957
 
                        supports various popular IM network protocols. Using Pidgin, you can communicate with people who use America
958
 
                        Online (AOL) Instant Messenger (AIM/ICQ), Gadu-Gadu, GroupWise, IRC, Jabber, MSN, Napster and Yahoo. It
959
 
                        allows you to list all your friends in one window. Pidgin users can log on to multiple accounts on multiple IM networks simultaneously. This means that you can chat with friends on AIM, talk to a friend on Yahoo Messenger, and sit in an IRC channel, all at the same time. Pidgin supports many features of the various networks, such as file transfer, away messages, typing notification, and MSN window closing notification. A few popular features are Buddy Pounces, which give the ability to notify you, send a message, play a sound or run a programme when a specific buddy goes away, signs online or returns from idle.</para>
960
 
                        
961
 
                        <para>To connect to an existing e-mail account using the Pidgin instant messenger, perform the following
962
 
                        steps:</para>
963
 
                        <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
964
 
                                <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Applications</emphasis> menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Internet</emphasis> and click <emphasis role="strong">Pidgin Internet Messenger</emphasis>. The <emphasis role="strong">Accounts</emphasis> dialogue box with a welcome message will be displayed.</para>
965
 
                        <figure id="fig:pidgin"><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Pidgin Internet Messenger</emphasis></title>
966
 
                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
967
 
                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_054.png" format="PNG" />
968
 
                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
969
 
                                </figure>
970
 
                                </listitem>
971
 
                                <listitem><para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Add</emphasis> to configure your any existing e-mail
972
 
                                account on Pidgin. The <emphasis role="strong">Add Account</emphasis> dialogue box will be displayed.</para>
973
 
                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Adding a New IM Account</emphasis></title>
974
 
                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
975
 
                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_055.png" format="PNG" />
976
 
                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
977
 
                                </figure>
978
 
                                </listitem>
979
 
                                <listitem><para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Add Account</emphasis> dialogue box, select the protocol,
980
 
                                which is your e-mail account server name from the <emphasis role="strong">Protocol</emphasis> box. The
981
 
                                protocol is the name of the server you want to use for chat. Type your selected protocol's e-mail id
982
 
                                in the <emphasis role="strong">Screen name</emphasis> box and the corresponding password. Type your
983
 
                                nick name that you would like to be known by while chatting in the <emphasis role="strong">Local
984
 
                                alias</emphasis> box. Click <emphasis role="strong">Save</emphasis> to create the account. The
985
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">Accounts</emphasis> window will be displayed.</para>
986
 
                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Providing Basic Account Information</emphasis></title>
987
 
                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
988
 
                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_056.png" format="PNG" />
989
 
                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
990
 
                                </figure>
991
 
                                </listitem>
992
 
                                <listitem><para>You can see the newly created account with a check mark indicating that it is active
993
 
                                in the <emphasis role="strong">Accounts</emphasis> window. Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis>.
994
 
                                </para>
995
 
                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Viewing Added Accounts</emphasis></title>
996
 
                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
997
 
                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_057.png" format="PNG" />
998
 
                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
999
 
                                </figure>
1000
 
                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
1001
 
                                <para>If you want to add another e-mail account, click
1002
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">Add</emphasis> in the <emphasis role="strong">Accounts</emphasis>
1003
 
                                window and perform steps 1-4.</para></note>
1004
 
                                </listitem>
1005
 
                                <listitem><para>Now, click the <emphasis role="strong">Pidgin</emphasis> icon on the top panel of the
1006
 
                                desktop to view the <emphasis role="strong">Buddy List</emphasis> window for your current account.</para>
1007
 
                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Viewing Buddy List</emphasis></title>
1008
 
                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1009
 
                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_058.png" format="PNG" />
1010
 
                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1011
 
                                </figure>
1012
 
                                </listitem>
1013
 
                                <listitem>
1014
 
                                <para>To start using Pidgin, on the <emphasis role="strong">Buddies</emphasis> menu, click
1015
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">New Instant Message</emphasis>. The <emphasis role="strong">New Instant
1016
 
                                Message</emphasis> window will be displayed.</para>
1017
 
                                <figure id="fig:pidgin_buddylist"><title><emphasis role="italic">New Instant Message</emphasis></title>
1018
 
                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1019
 
                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_059.png" format="PNG" />
1020
 
                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1021
 
                                </figure>
1022
 
                                </listitem>
1023
 
                                <listitem><para>To interact with other users, type the screen name or alias of the person you would
1024
 
                                like to chat with in the <emphasis role="strong">Name</emphasis> box and click <emphasis role="strong">
1025
 
                                OK</emphasis>. An IM window will be displayed.</para>
1026
 
                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Specifying Buddy Name </emphasis></title>
1027
 
                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1028
 
                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_060.png" format="PNG" />
1029
 
                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1030
 
                                </figure>
1031
 
                                
1032
 
                                </listitem>
1033
 
                                <listitem><para>You can use the box at the bottom of the window to type your messages and press Enter
1034
 
                                to send them. This is how you can start your conversation.</para>
1035
 
                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">IM Window</emphasis></title>
1036
 
                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1037
 
                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_061.png" format="PNG" />
1038
 
                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1039
 
                                </figure>
1040
 
                                <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
1041
 
                                <para>You can change the appearance of Pidgin by adding additional features,
1042
 
                                such as changing its graphical interface and theme to it. The packages
1043
 
                                required to do this are Pidgin-guifications, Pidgin-libnotify and Pidgin-themes. You can install these packages from Synaptic Package Manager by following the
1044
 
                        procedure listed in the <emphasis role="strong">Using Alternative E-Mail Client</emphasis>
1045
 
                        section.</para></tip>
1046
 
                                </listitem>
1047
 
                        </orderedlist>
1048
 
                        
1049
 
                </sect1>
1050
 
                <sect1>
1051
 
                        <title>Making Phone Calls Using Softphones</title>
1052
 
                        <para>A softphone is a software programme that is used to make telephone calls over the Internet using a
1053
 
                        computer instead of using a regular phone. Your service provider may offer computer-to-computer
1054
 
                        calls for free, but PC-to-phone and phone-to-PC calls usually are charged. You need to have the same
1055
 
                        communication protocol and use a common audio codec to communicate with another person. The audio codec
1056
 
                        defines how voice is translated into digital signals. Examples of
1057
 
                        SIP softphones are Ekiga, WengoPhone, SIP Express Router and many more.</para>
1058
 
                        <para>You use a softphone with a headset connected to the computer or with a USB phone.
1059
 
                        The features of softphone include all standard telephony features, such as mute, flash, hold and transfer.
1060
 
                        It also includes new features, such as presence, video, wideband audio and many more.  The softphone
1061
 
                        requirements to make voice calls over the Internet are a computer with a microphone and speaker, a headset
1062
 
                        or USB phone, Internet connectivity and an account with an Internet telephony service provider.</para>
1063
 
                        <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
1064
 
                        <para>Skype, Google Talk and Vonage are Internet telephony service providers whose software
1065
 
                        you would need to install on your computer. But these three providers
1066
 
                        are not interoperable, and you cannot place a direct call between them.</para></tip>
1067
 
                        <para>The configuration of Ekiga and the features of WengoPhone are described now.</para>
1068
 
                        <sect2>
1069
 
                                <title>Using Ekiga</title>
1070
 
                                <para>Ekiga is an open source softphone application for Ubuntu. It is a free Voice over IP (VoIP) and video
1071
 
                                conferencing application. VoIP routes voice conversations over the Internet or through any other IP-based
1072
 
                                network. You can use Ekiga to call, send instant messages and be contacted by other Ekiga users.
1073
 
                                </para>
1074
 
                                <para>The First Time Configuration Assistant helps you configure Ekiga. It appears automatically when you
1075
 
                                open Ekiga for the first time. To configure Ekiga on Ubuntu:</para>
1076
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
1077
 
                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Applications</emphasis> menu, point to
1078
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Internet</emphasis> and click <emphasis role="strong">Ekiga</emphasis>. The 
1079
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Configuration Assistant</emphasis> page will be displayed. Click
1080
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Forward</emphasis>.</para> 
1081
 
                                        <figure id="ekiga"><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Ekiga Softphone</emphasis></title>
1082
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1083
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_062.png" format="PNG" />
1084
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1085
 
                                        </figure>
1086
 
                                        
1087
 
                                        </listitem>
1088
 
                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Personal Information</emphasis> page, type your full
1089
 
                                        name in the <emphasis role="strong">Please enter your first name and your surname</emphasis> box. The
1090
 
                                        name that you specify is used for display purposes when you connect to other audio or video
1091
 
                                        applications. Click <emphasis role="strong">Forward</emphasis>.</para>
1092
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Specifying Display Name</emphasis></title>
1093
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1094
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_063.png" format="PNG" />
1095
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1096
 
                                        </figure>
1097
 
                                        </listitem>
1098
 
                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">ekiga.net Account</emphasis> page, type your Ekiga's
1099
 
                                        account user name and password that you use to log in to your existing Ekiga account. You will get
1100
 
                                        this detail from the ekiga.net free SIP service. Click <emphasis role="strong">Forward</emphasis>.
1101
 
                                        </para>
1102
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Specifying ekiga.net Account Username and Password</emphasis></title>
1103
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1104
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_064.png" format="PNG" />
1105
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1106
 
                                        </figure>
1107
 
                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
1108
 
                                        <para>If you do not have an SIP account, you can click the link
1109
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Get an ekiga.net SIP account</emphasis> on the
1110
 
                                        page to create an SIP account on ekiga.net.</para></note>
1111
 
                                        </listitem>
1112
 
                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Connection Type</emphasis> page, select the type of
1113
 
                                        Internet connection you are using on your computer from the <emphasis role="strong">Please choose your
1114
 
                                        connection type</emphasis> box. This connection type determines the best quality settings that Ekiga
1115
 
                                        will use during calls. If you do not know the connection type, contact your system administrator.
1116
 
                                        Click <emphasis role="strong">Forward</emphasis>. You can change these settings later.</para>
1117
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting Connection Type</emphasis></title>
1118
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1119
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_065.png" format="PNG" />
1120
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1121
 
                                        </figure>
1122
 
                                        </listitem>
1123
 
                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">NAT Type</emphasis> page, click
1124
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Detect NAT Type</emphasis>. It informs you which Network Address Translation
1125
 
                                        (NAT) type was detected and automatically configures Ekiga to transparently cross your router. So,
1126
 
                                        NAT avoids all the problems associated with reserving IP addresses. Click <emphasis role="strong">
1127
 
                                        Forward</emphasis>.</para>
1128
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting NAT Type</emphasis></title>
1129
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1130
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_066.png" format="PNG" />
1131
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1132
 
                                        </figure>
1133
 
                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
1134
 
                                        <para>To learn more about NAT, refer to:
1135
 
                                        <ulink url="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_address_translation">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_address_translation</ulink>.</para></note>
1136
 
                                        </listitem>
1137
 
                                        <listitem><para>You can make your music sound just like it was recorded by correct use of
1138
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">plug-ins</emphasis>. On the <emphasis role="strong">Audio Manager</emphasis>
1139
 
                                        page, select the audio manager, which is the plug-in, according to the sound card of your computer. The audio manager is a plug-in that manages your audio device and is dependant on the operating system on your computer. Though it is recommended to use ALSA, you should check with your your system administrator to identify the appropriate audio manager for the audio device that you want to use. Then, click <emphasis role="strong">Forward</emphasis>.</para>
1140
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting Audio Manager</emphasis></title>
1141
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1142
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_067.png" format="PNG" />
1143
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1144
 
                                        </figure>
1145
 
                                        </listitem>
1146
 
                                        <listitem><para>Ekiga requires audio output and input devices to play and record sound files. The
1147
 
                                        audio output device is used to play audio and audio input device to record your voice. So, on the
1148
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Audio Devices</emphasis> page, select the audio output and input devices. For
1149
 
                                        example, headset or speakers are the output device and your microphone the audio input device. Now,
1150
 
                                        click <emphasis role="strong">Test Settings</emphasis> to check the functionality of audio devices
1151
 
                                        and the click <emphasis role="strong">Forward</emphasis>.</para>
1152
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting Audio Devices</emphasis></title>
1153
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1154
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_068.png" format="PNG" />
1155
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1156
 
                                        </figure>
1157
 
                                        </listitem>
1158
 
                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Video Manager</emphasis> page, select the video
1159
 
                                        manager, which is the plug-in used to manage your video devices. You can select Video4Linux to manage
1160
 
                                        Webcams or AVC / DC for Firewire cameras. Click <emphasis role="strong">Forward</emphasis>.</para>
1161
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting Video Manager</emphasis></title>
1162
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1163
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_069.png" format="PNG" />
1164
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1165
 
                                                </figure>
1166
 
                                        </listitem>
1167
 
                                        <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Video Devices</emphasis> page, select the video input
1168
 
                                        device from the <emphasis role="strong">Please choose the video input device</emphasis> box. The
1169
 
                                        video input device is the device managed by the video manager that will be used to capture video.
1170
 
                                        If you do not want to do video conferencing or if you do not have a video device, you may skip this
1171
 
                                        page.</para>
1172
 
                                        <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Test Settings</emphasis> to ensure that your video device
1173
 
                                        works with Ekiga. Click <emphasis role="strong">Forward</emphasis>.</para>
1174
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting Video Devices</emphasis></title>
1175
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1176
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_070.png" format="PNG" />
1177
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1178
 
                                        </figure>
1179
 
                                        </listitem>
1180
 
                                        <listitem><para>The configuration of Ekiga is now complete. This window displays a configuration
1181
 
                                        summary of the settings you have selected. You can verify your settings here. In case you want to
1182
 
                                        make any modification, navigate to the required page by using <emphasis role="strong">Back</emphasis>
1183
 
                                        and <emphasis role="strong">Next</emphasis> and make appropriate changes. Click
1184
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Apply</emphasis> to save the configuration.</para>
1185
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Account Configuration Summary</emphasis></title>
1186
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1187
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_071.png" format="PNG" />
1188
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1189
 
                                        </figure>
1190
 
                                        <para>The Configuration Assistant will close. </para>
1191
 
                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
1192
 
                                        <para>After installing Ekiga, if you want to modify any configuration, you
1193
 
                                        can run the configuration assistant again by <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis>
1194
 
                                        on the <emphasis role="strong">Edit</emphasis> menu in the Ekiga window.</para></note>
1195
 
                                        <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
1196
 
                                        <para>For more information on Ekiga, refer to
1197
 
                                        <ulink url="http://www.ekiga.org">http://www.ekiga.org</ulink>.</para></tip>
1198
 
                                        
1199
 
                                        <para>The Ekiga window will be displayed. It is the default softphone application available on Ubuntu.</para>
1200
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Ekiga Window</emphasis></title>
1201
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1202
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_072.png" format="PNG" />
1203
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1204
 
                                        </figure>
1205
 
                                        </listitem>
1206
 
                                </orderedlist>
1207
 
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Making Calls Using Ekiga</emphasis></para>
1208
 
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">From Computer to Computer</emphasis></para>
1209
 
                                <para>To place and receive calls through your computer, you require a SIP address. You can use the SIP
1210
 
                                address to call your friends and family, and they in turn can use this address to call you. A SIP
1211
 
                                address works on the the same principle as an e-mail address. You can sign up for a free account on Ekiga.net and this will
1212
 
                                give you a unique SIP address. An example of SIP address is sip:dsandras@ekiga.net.</para>
1213
 
                                <para>Using Ekiga, you can call anyone who is registered to the public SIP provider and uses a SIP
1214
 
                                software or hardware. You can use the online address book of Ekiga to find the SIP addresses of other Ekiga users. It is of course possible to call users who are using another provider than ekiga.net. You can actually call any user using SIP software or hardware, registered to any public SIP provider. To make calls, you can type the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) address of the user you wish to call in the <emphasis role="strong">sip:</emphasis> input box and click the connect icon on the right of the text box to place a call. If you know the URL address of the party that you wish to call, you may enter that URL into the sip: input box at the top of the screen and press the Connect button. Pressing the Connect button would call the user at that address. With the default setup, you can simply type sip:foo to call user foo@ekiga.net.</para>
1215
 
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">From Computer to Regular Phones</emphasis></para>
1216
 
                                <para>You can use Ekiga with multiple Internet Telephony Service Providers. There is a charge for this service so 
1217
 
                                you will need to create an account with the provider first. You can then dial the numbers from the <emphasis role="strong">Dialpad</emphasis> and make
1218
 
                                calls.</para>
1219
 
                                <para>If you want to create an account and use it to call your friends and family using appears, which
1220
 
                                allows you to create an account using the Get an Ekiga PC-to-Phone account. After the account is created,
1221
 
                                you will receive a login and a password by an e-mail message. Simply enter them in the dialogue box,
1222
 
                                select <emphasis role="strong">Use PC-To-Phone service</emphasis> and you are ready to call regular
1223
 
                                phones using Ekiga. With the default setup, you can simply use sip:00911129535955 to call the real phone number 003210444555, 00 is the international dialling code, 91 is the country code and 1129535955 is the number to call.</para>
1224
 
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">From Real Phones to Computer</emphasis></para>
1225
 
                                <para>You can also use Ekiga to receive incoming calls from regular phones. For this, you have to login
1226
 
                                to <emphasis role="strong">PC-To-Phone</emphasis> account and purchase a phone number. Ekiga then rings,
1227
 
                                when people call you at that phone number.</para>
1228
 
                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
1229
 
                                <para>To learn more about making phone calls by using Ekiga, refer to
1230
 
                                <ulink url="http://www.ekiga.org/index.php?rub=3">http://www.ekiga.org/index.php?rub=3</ulink>.</para></note>
1231
 
                        </sect2>
1232
 
                        <sect2>
1233
 
                                <title>Installing WengoPhone</title>
1234
 
                                <para>WengoPhone is also a free software based on SIP. The OpenWengo community developed WengoPhone under the GNU General
1235
 
                                Public License (GPL). You can speak to other users of SIP compliant VoIP software at no cost by using
1236
 
                                WengoPhone. In addition, it allows you to call landlines, cellphones, send messages and to make video
1237
 
                                calls.</para>
1238
 
                                <para>Wengophone is not a default application on Ubuntu. But you can download it from Synaptic Package
1239
 
                                Manager.</para>
1240
 
                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
1241
 
                                <para>You can follow the procedure listed in the <emphasis role="strong">Using
1242
 
                                Alternative E-Mail Client</emphasis> section to install Wengophone on Ubuntu.</para></note>
1243
 
                                <para>To open Wengophone on Ubuntu, on the <emphasis role="strong">Applications</emphasis> menu, point to
1244
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">Internet</emphasis> and click <emphasis role="strong">WengoPhone</emphasis>.
1245
 
                                </para>
1246
 
                                <figure id="wengophone"><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching WengoPhone</emphasis></title>
1247
 
                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1248
 
                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_073.png" format="PNG" />
1249
 
                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1250
 
                                </figure>
1251
 
                                <para>The <emphasis role="strong">WengoPhone-Login</emphasis> window will be displayed.</para>
1252
 
                                
1253
 
                                <para>You need to have a Wengo account to use WengoPhone.Type your Wengo e-mail address in the
1254
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">Email Address</emphasis> field and the account password in the
1255
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">Password</emphasis> box. If you do not have a Wengo account, click
1256
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">Click here if you don't have a Wengo account</emphasis> to create one and then
1257
 
                                click <emphasis role="strong">Login</emphasis> to start using WengoPhone.</para>
1258
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">WengoPhone Login Window</emphasis></title>
1259
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1260
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_074.png" format="PNG" />
1261
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1262
 
                                        </figure>
1263
 
                                <para>To learn how to use Wengophone, refer to:
1264
 
                                <ulink url="http://www.wengophone.com/">http://www.wengophone.com/</ulink>
1265
 
                                </para>
1266
 
                                <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
1267
 
                                <para>WengoPhone uses DSL, Cable or WiFi Internet connection to provide
1268
 
                                telephony services.</para></tip>
1269
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Wengophone Window</emphasis></title>
1270
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1271
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_075.png" format="PNG" />
1272
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1273
 
                                        </figure>
1274
 
                                <para>The main features of WengoPhone include:</para>
1275
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
1276
 
                                        <listitem><para><emphasis role="strong">Chat:</emphasis> You can chat with your MSN, Yahoo, AIM,
1277
 
                                        Jabber and Google Talk contacts from within your WengoPhone.</para>
1278
 
                                        </listitem>
1279
 
                                        <listitem><para><emphasis role="strong">Call:</emphasis> You have to know the nickname of users using
1280
 
                                        Wengo account and can make calls from your computer to another computer for free. To make calls on
1281
 
                                        landline and mobile, you need to purchase Wengo's call-credits. WengoPhone has useful conference call,
1282
 
                                        call waiting and call forward features.</para>
1283
 
                                        </listitem>
1284
 
                                        <listitem><para><emphasis role="strong">Video:</emphasis> WengoPhone allows you to make free video
1285
 
                                        calls with your Wengo contacts.</para>
1286
 
                                        </listitem>
1287
 
                                        <listitem><para><emphasis role="strong">SMS:</emphasis> WengoPhone enables you to send SMS to your
1288
 
                                        friends' mobile phones all over the world at one single rate. It offers you to purchase a call-in
1289
 
                                        service with a Wengo phone number so that people will be able to contact you on this number, and you
1290
 
                                        can hear their message as a regular phone call.</para>
1291
 
                                        </listitem>
1292
 
                                </orderedlist>
1293
 
                        </sect2>
1294
 
                        <sect2>
1295
 
                                <title>Skype</title>
1296
 
                                <para>Skype is another softphone that can be used on Ubuntu to make calls over the Internet. The source code of Skype software is proprietary,
1297
 
                                but the software is free to use. Your calls go through distributed servers and not through
1298
 
                                a central server. To accomplish this, Skype uses a decentralized peer-to-peer technologies and its own
1299
 
                                proprietary communication protocol. Skype uses encrypted communication, which means all communications
1300
 
                                are encrypted from end-to-end so that others cannot listen in. We will not go into detail over Skype communication here.</para>
1301
 
                        </sect2>
1302
 
                </sect1>
1303
 
                <sect1>
1304
 
                        <title>Lesson Summary</title>
1305
 
                        <para>In this lesson, you learned that:</para>
1306
 
                        <itemizedlist>
1307
 
                                <listitem><para>You can connect a computer to the Internet using cable, wireless and dial-up
1308
 
                                connections.</para></listitem>
1309
 
                                <listitem><para>Mozilla Firefox is an open source, powerful and secure Web browser. It is available
1310
 
                                for free and is the default browser on Ubuntu.</para></listitem>
1311
 
                                <listitem><para>Firefox includes two powerful features that make your online experience better and
1312
 
                                more productive -integrated search system and live bookmarking.</para></listitem>
1313
 
                                <listitem><para>Liferea is an RSS feed reader, which offers basic and useful features to manage your
1314
 
                                newsgroup subscription.</para></listitem>
1315
 
                                <listitem><para>Evolution is the default e-mail client for Ubuntu.</para></listitem>
1316
 
                                <listitem><para>Mozilla Thunderbird is the e-mail application developed by Mozilla Foundation. It is a free, cross-platform e-mail and news client. It is also used to access newsgroups.</para></listitem>
1317
 
                                <listitem><para>The default instant messenger client on Ubuntu is Pidgin. It is a cross-platform instant messenger that supports multiple popular IM network protocols.</para></listitem>
1318
 
                                <listitem><para>Ekiga is the default open source softphone application for Ubuntu.</para></listitem>
1319
 
                                <listitem><para>WengoPhone is a free-software based on SIP. It allows you to call landlines and
1320
 
                                cellphones, send messages and make video calls.</para></listitem>
1321
 
                                
1322
 
                                </itemizedlist>
1323
 
                </sect1>
1324
 
                    <questions>
1325
 
                <sect1>
1326
 
                        <title>Review Exercise</title>
1327
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 1</emphasis></para>
1328
 
                        <para>What are the three main ways to connect to the Internet?</para>
1329
 
                        <answer>
1330
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 1</emphasis></para>
1331
 
                        <para>The three main ways to connect to the Internet are through cable, wireless and dial-up
1332
 
                        connections.</para>
1333
 
                        </answer>
1334
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 2</emphasis></para>
1335
 
                        <para>Which tool is used to identify a modem on Ubuntu?</para>
1336
 
                        <answer>
1337
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 2</emphasis></para>
1338
 
                        <para>The ScanModem tool is used to identify a modem on Ubuntu.</para>
1339
 
                        </answer>
1340
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 3</emphasis></para>
1341
 
                        <para>Why do you require a live bookmark in Firefox?</para>
1342
 
                        <answer>
1343
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 3</emphasis></para>
1344
 
                        <para>Mozilla Firefox uses a live bookmark for quick access to saved Web addresses.</para>
1345
 
                        </answer>
1346
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 4</emphasis></para>
1347
 
                        <para>What is a feed?</para>
1348
 
                        <answer>
1349
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 4</emphasis></para>
1350
 
                        <para>A feed is an XML Web page that contains a list of links to other Web pages.</para>
1351
 
                        </answer>
1352
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 5</emphasis></para>
1353
 
                        <para>Match the following:</para>
1354
 
                        <table>
1355
 
                        <title>Table 1</title>
1356
 
                                <tgroup cols="2">
1357
 
                                        <tbody>
1358
 
                                                <row>
1359
 
                                                        <entry><para>1) Evolution</para></entry>
1360
 
                                                        <entry><para>a) Web browser</para></entry>
1361
 
                                                </row>
1362
 
                                                <row>
1363
 
                                                        <entry><para>2) Firefox</para></entry>
1364
 
                                                        <entry><para>b) Mail client</para></entry>
1365
 
                                                </row>
1366
 
                                                <row>
1367
 
                                                        <entry><para>3) Ekiga</para></entry>
1368
 
                                                        <entry><para>c) Instant messenger</para></entry>
1369
 
                                                </row>
1370
 
                                                <row>
1371
 
                                                        <entry><para>4) Pidgin</para></entry>
1372
 
                                                        <entry><para>d) Phone calls</para></entry>
1373
 
                                                </row>
1374
 
                                        </tbody>
1375
 
                                </tgroup>
1376
 
                        </table>
1377
 
                        <answer>
1378
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 5</emphasis></para>
1379
 
                        <para>1-b, 2-a, 3-d and 4-c</para>
1380
 
                        </answer>
1381
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 6</emphasis></para>
1382
 
                        <para>Thunderbird is a free, ______________ e-mail and news client.</para>
1383
 
                        <answer>
1384
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 6</emphasis></para>
1385
 
                        <para>Thunderbird is a free, cross-platform e-mail and news client.</para>
1386
 
                        </answer>
1387
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 7</emphasis></para>
1388
 
                        <para>You can get an SIP address from ________________.</para>
1389
 
                        <answer>
1390
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 7</emphasis></para>
1391
 
                        <para>You can get an SIP address from <ulink url="http://www.ekiga.net">http://www.ekiga.net</ulink>.</para>
1392
 
                        </answer>
1393
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 8</emphasis></para>
1394
 
                        <para>On which protocol is WengoPhone based?</para>
1395
 
                        <para>A. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)</para>
1396
 
                        <para>B. User Datagram Protocol (UDP)</para>
1397
 
                        <para>C. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)</para>
1398
 
                        <para>D. Internet Protocol version 6 (Ipv6)</para>
1399
 
                        <answer>
1400
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 8</emphasis></para>
1401
 
                        <para>C. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)</para>
1402
 
                        </answer>
1403
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 9</emphasis></para>
1404
 
                        <para>The source code of Skype software is _______________, but the software is _________________to use.</para>
1405
 
                        <answer>
1406
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 9</emphasis></para>
1407
 
                        <para>The source code of Skype software is proprietary, but the software is free to use.</para>
1408
 
                        </answer>
1409
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 10</emphasis></para>
1410
 
                        <para>Which of the following is an RSS feed reader?</para>
1411
 
                        <para>A. Ekiga</para>
1412
 
                        <para>B. Liferea</para>
1413
 
                        <para>C. Pan</para>
1414
 
                        <para>D. Wengo</para>
1415
 
                        <answer>
1416
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 10</emphasis></para>
1417
 
                        <para>B. Liferea</para>
1418
 
                        </answer>
1419
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 11</emphasis></para>
1420
 
                        <para>Liferea is a news __________________for online news feeds.</para>
1421
 
                        <answer>
1422
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 11</emphasis></para>
1423
 
                        <para>Liferea is a news accumulator for online news feeds.</para>
1424
 
                        </answer>
1425
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 12</emphasis></para>
1426
 
                        <para>Which of the following is proprietary software?</para>
1427
 
                        <para>A. Skype</para>
1428
 
                        <para>B. Ekiga</para>
1429
 
                        <para>C. Wengophone</para>
1430
 
                        <para>D. Firefox</para>
1431
 
                        <answer>
1432
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 12</emphasis></para>
1433
 
                        <para>A. Skype</para>
1434
 
                        </answer>
1435
 
                </sect1>
1436
 
                    </questions>
1437
 
                <sect1>
1438
 
                        <title>Lab Exercise</title>
1439
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Exercise 1</emphasis></para>
1440
 
                        <para>You are using the Firefox Web browser to view several interesting Web sites. You come across a Web site
1441
 
                        <ulink url="http://www.stevepavlina.com">http://www.stevepavlina.com</ulink>. You want to save the URL for
1442
 
                        future referencing. Your friend suggests creating a bookmark so that the next time when you are online, you
1443
 
                        can click the link that will directly take you to that Web page.</para>
1444
 
                        <para>In Mozilla Firefox, create a live bookmark.</para>
1445
 
                        <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
1446
 
                                <listitem><para>Open the Firefox Web browser. On the <emphasis role="strong">Bookmarks</emphasis>
1447
 
                                menu, click <emphasis role="strong">Organise Bookmarks</emphasis>. The <emphasis role="strong">Bookmarks
1448
 
                                Manager</emphasis> window is displayed.</para></listitem>
1449
 
                                <listitem><para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Bookmarks Manager</emphasis> window, on the
1450
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">File</emphasis> menu, click <emphasis role="strong">New Live Bookmark</emphasis>.
1451
 
                                The <emphasis role="strong">Properties for New Live Bookmark</emphasis> dialogue box is displays.</para>
1452
 
                                </listitem>
1453
 
                                <listitem><para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Properties for New Live Bookmark</emphasis> dialogue box,
1454
 
                                type <emphasis role="strong">Personal</emphasis> <emphasis role="strong">Development</emphasis> in the
1455
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">Name</emphasis> box, <ulink url="http://www.stevepavlina.com">http://www.stevepavlina.com</ulink>
1456
 
                                in the <emphasis role="strong">Feed Location</emphasis> box and <emphasis role="strong">My live bookmark
1457
 
                                </emphasis> in the <emphasis role="strong">Description</emphasis> box. Click <emphasis role="strong">OK
1458
 
                                </emphasis> and close the <emphasis role="strong">Bookmarks Manager</emphasis> window.</para></listitem>
1459
 
                                <listitem><para>In the Firefox Web browser, on the <emphasis role="strong">Bookmarks</emphasis> menu,
1460
 
                                point to <emphasis role="strong">My live bookmark</emphasis>. The list of feeds displays.</para>
1461
 
                                </listitem>
1462
 
                        </orderedlist>
1463
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Exercise 2</emphasis></para>
1464
 
                        <para>You use Liferea as a newsreader on your computer. Recently, you met a friend who informed you about a
1465
 
                        Web site that offers RSS feeds, <ulink url="http://www.lifehacker.com">http://www.lifehacker.com</ulink>.
1466
 
                        Now, you want to configure Liferea for the latest updates from this Web site.</para>
1467
 
                        <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
1468
 
                                <listitem><para>Open the following Web site <ulink url="http://www.lifehacker.com">http://www.lifehacker.com</ulink>.
1469
 
                                This site offers RSS feeds.</para></listitem>
1470
 
                                <listitem><para>In the left pane, under <emphasis role="strong">syndication</emphasis>, click
1471
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">Full content (with ads).</emphasis> Save the URL in the
1472
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">Address bar</emphasis> of Mozilla Firefox. This URL,
1473
 
                                <ulink url="http://feeds.gawker.com/lifehacker/full">http://feeds.gawker.com/lifehacker/full</ulink>,
1474
 
                                is the feed.</para></listitem>
1475
 
                                <listitem><para>Open Liferea.</para></listitem>
1476
 
                                <listitem><para>Right-click in the left pane, point to <emphasis role="strong">New</emphasis> and click
1477
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">New Subscription</emphasis>. The <emphasis role="strong">New Subscription
1478
 
                                </emphasis> dialogue box is displayed.</para></listitem>
1479
 
                                <listitem><para>In the <emphasis role="strong">New Subscription</emphasis> dialogue box, type the saved
1480
 
                                URL <ulink url="http://feeds.gawker.com/lifehacker/full">http://feeds.gawker.com/lifehacker/full</ulink>
1481
 
                                and click OK.</para></listitem>
1482
 
                        </orderedlist>
1483
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Exercise 3</emphasis></para>
1484
 
                        <para>You want to chat with your friend, who uses Google talk (gtalk). But you use Pidgin Internet Messenger to
1485
 
                        chat. So configure Pidgin to chat using gtalk.</para>
1486
 
                        <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
1487
 
                                <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Applications</emphasis> menu, point to
1488
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">Internet</emphasis> and click <emphasis role="strong">Pidgin Internet
1489
 
                                Messenger</emphasis>.</para></listitem>
1490
 
                                <listitem><para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Accounts</emphasis> menu, click
1491
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">Add/Edit</emphasis>. The <emphasis role="strong">Accounts</emphasis> window
1492
 
                                is displayed.</para></listitem>
1493
 
                                <listitem><para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Accounts</emphasis> window, click
1494
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">Add</emphasis>. The <emphasis role="strong">Add Account</emphasis> window
1495
 
                                is displayed.</para></listitem>
1496
 
                                <listitem><para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Add Account</emphasis> window, select
1497
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">xmpp</emphasis> from the <emphasis role="strong">Protocol</emphasis> box, type
1498
 
                                your gtalk e-mail id in the <emphasis role="strong">Screen name</emphasis> box, your account password in
1499
 
                                the <emphasis role="strong">Password</emphasis> box and your nickname in the <emphasis role="strong">Local
1500
 
                                alias</emphasis> box. Click <emphasis role="strong">Save</emphasis>.</para></listitem>
1501
 
                                <listitem><para>You are now connected to the gtalk server.</para></listitem>
1502
 
                        </orderedlist>
1503
 
                </sect1>
1504
 
</chapter>
1505
 
 
 
2
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3
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4
<chapter id="lesson3">
 
5
  <title>Using the Internet</title>
 
6
 
 
7
  <itemizedlist>
 
8
    <title>Objectives</title>
 
9
 
 
10
    <para>In this lesson, you will learn to:</para>
 
11
 
 
12
    <listitem>
 
13
      <para>Connect to the Internet</para>
 
14
    </listitem>
 
15
 
 
16
    <listitem>
 
17
      <para>Browse the Web</para>
 
18
    </listitem>
 
19
 
 
20
    <listitem>
 
21
      <para>Access various news sources</para>
 
22
    </listitem>
 
23
 
 
24
    <listitem>
 
25
      <para>Send and receive e-mail messages</para>
 
26
    </listitem>
 
27
 
 
28
    <listitem>
 
29
      <para>Use various tools for instant messaging</para>
 
30
    </listitem>
 
31
 
 
32
    <listitem>
 
33
      <para>Make phone calls using Softphones</para>
 
34
    </listitem>
 
35
  </itemizedlist>
 
36
 
 
37
  <note userlevel="instructor">
 
38
    <title>Instructor Notes:</title>
 
39
 
 
40
    <para>It is recommended to cover all the topics in this lesson. However,
 
41
    if you are running short on time, you can omit the following optional
 
42
    topics: Using Dial-up, Alternative E-mail Client and WengoPhone.</para>
 
43
  </note>
 
44
 
 
45
  <sect1>
 
46
    <title>Connecting to and Using the Internet</title>
 
47
 
 
48
    <para>The Internet is used by millions of people daily for work and
 
49
    entertainment. Searching for information all over the world, corresponding
 
50
    with friends and relatives, participating in discussion forums, reading
 
51
    the news, playing games, has never been easier... or more
 
52
    accessible.</para>
 
53
 
 
54
    <para>The means of connecting to the Internet is not always a choice and
 
55
    depends greatly on where you live and/or work and the surrounding
 
56
    infrastructure. The pre-requisites to connect to the Internet are an
 
57
    Internet Service Provider (ISP) subscription and a functional Internet
 
58
    connection in your area. Configuring the Internet connection requires
 
59
    minimal involvement from you. Ubuntu supports most connection types. This
 
60
    lesson will cover: Broadband (cable or ASDL), dial-up and direct access
 
61
    through Local Area Network (LAN).</para>
 
62
 
 
63
    <para>Broadband connections are fast and reliable connections that users
 
64
    subscribe to for a monthly fee. Broadband companies offer packages with
 
65
    different speed specifications and bandwidth limits. If you travel and
 
66
    need Internet access, you can purchase a wireless Internet connection. If
 
67
    your computer does not have one pre-installed, you will need to install a
 
68
    wireless card. This connection is similar to a satellite connection, where
 
69
    data is transmitted through the airwaves.</para>
 
70
 
 
71
    <para>Dial-up access uses the same lines as your phone connection, except
 
72
    that the parties at the two ends are computers. This is a slow and cheap
 
73
    connection that uses a phone line to connect to a local server. Your
 
74
    computer dials a phone number that is provided by your ISP and connects to
 
75
    the server. Consequently, you cannot make phone calls while you are
 
76
    connected to the Internet. This is the oldest and slowest means of
 
77
    connecting; carrying out many functions using this mode can be very
 
78
    tedious and frustrating.</para>
 
79
 
 
80
    <sect2>
 
81
      <title>Network Manager</title>
 
82
 
 
83
      <para>The Network Manager on Ubuntu is a simple to use and powerful
 
84
      utility to stay connected with wired and wireless adapters. It is
 
85
      located on the top menubar at the outer right corner. A left-click will
 
86
      reveal if your computer is already connected to a wired or wireless
 
87
      network. In case of a wireless network that is protected by a password,
 
88
      a dialogue will appear and ask for the password. The password can then
 
89
      be stored in your keyring, where it will automatically be used when
 
90
      needed. However, you may be asked for your keyring password if you have
 
91
      to log out.</para>
 
92
 
 
93
      <figure float="0" id="fig-network-manager">
 
94
        <title>Network Manager</title>
 
95
 
 
96
        <mediaobject>
 
97
          <imageobject>
 
98
            <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_001.png" format="PNG"
 
99
                       width="6cm" />
 
100
          </imageobject>
 
101
        </mediaobject>
 
102
      </figure>
 
103
 
 
104
      <para>You can also right-click on Network Manager to enable and disable
 
105
      wireless and wired connections. The connection information allows access
 
106
      to the network parameters currently used.</para>
 
107
 
 
108
      <figure float="0" id="fig-network-manager-connection">
 
109
        <title>Network Manager Connection</title>
 
110
 
 
111
        <mediaobject>
 
112
          <imageobject>
 
113
            <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_002.png" format="PNG"
 
114
                       width="5cm" />
 
115
          </imageobject>
 
116
        </mediaobject>
 
117
      </figure>
 
118
 
 
119
      <para>If Network Manager does not automatically configure your network
 
120
      connections, you can fall back to manually configuring them.</para>
 
121
    </sect2>
 
122
 
 
123
    <sect2>
 
124
      <title>Using a Cable Connection</title>
 
125
 
 
126
      <procedure>
 
127
        <title>To connect to the Internet using a cable connection:</title>
 
128
 
 
129
        <step performance="required">
 
130
          <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> menu, point
 
131
          to <emphasis role="strong">Administration</emphasis> and click
 
132
          <emphasis role="strong">Network</emphasis>. The <emphasis
 
133
          role="strong">Network Settings</emphasis> dialogue box will be
 
134
          displayed.</para>
 
135
 
 
136
          <figure float="0" id="fig-network-menu">
 
137
            <title>Accessing Network Settings</title>
 
138
 
 
139
            <mediaobject>
 
140
              <imageobject>
 
141
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_003.png"
 
142
                           format="PNG" width="12cm" />
 
143
              </imageobject>
 
144
            </mediaobject>
 
145
          </figure>
 
146
        </step>
 
147
 
 
148
        <step performance="required">
 
149
          <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Connections</emphasis> page,
 
150
          select the connection to use. Click <emphasis
 
151
          role="strong">Properties</emphasis>. The <emphasis
 
152
          role="strong">eth0 Properties</emphasis> dialogue box will be
 
153
          displayed.</para>
 
154
 
 
155
          <figure float="0" id="fig-network-settings">
 
156
            <title>Network Settings</title>
 
157
 
 
158
            <mediaobject>
 
159
              <imageobject>
 
160
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_004.png"
 
161
                           format="PNG" width="8cm" />
 
162
              </imageobject>
 
163
            </mediaobject>
 
164
          </figure>
 
165
        </step>
 
166
 
 
167
        <step performance="required">
 
168
          <para>Clear the <emphasis role="strong">Enable roaming
 
169
          mode</emphasis> check box to enable the connection.</para>
 
170
 
 
171
          <note>
 
172
            <title>Note:</title>
 
173
 
 
174
            <para>Your Internet Service Provider (ISP) or network
 
175
            administrator should provide you with an IP address, subnet mask
 
176
            and gateway address which need to be specified in the connection
 
177
            information.</para>
 
178
          </note>
 
179
 
 
180
          <substeps performance="required">
 
181
            <step performance="required">
 
182
              <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Configuration</emphasis>
 
183
              box, select the <emphasis role="strong">Static IP
 
184
              address</emphasis> option.</para>
 
185
            </step>
 
186
 
 
187
            <step performance="required">
 
188
              <para>Type the IP address of your computer in the <emphasis
 
189
              role="strong">IP address</emphasis> box.</para>
 
190
            </step>
 
191
 
 
192
            <step performance="required">
 
193
              <para>Type the subnetwork (subnet) mask of your computer's IP
 
194
              address in the <emphasis role="strong">Subnet mask</emphasis>
 
195
              box.</para>
 
196
 
 
197
              <note>
 
198
                <title>Note:</title>
 
199
 
 
200
                <para>A subnet mask divides a network of IP addresses into
 
201
                groups, which facilitates routing of data.</para>
 
202
              </note>
 
203
            </step>
 
204
 
 
205
            <step performance="required">
 
206
              <para>Type the IP address of your ISP in the <emphasis
 
207
              role="strong">Gateway address</emphasis> box.</para>
 
208
 
 
209
              <note>
 
210
                <title>Note:</title>
 
211
 
 
212
                <para>A gateway is a device that connects a user to the
 
213
                Internet. It is provided by the ISP.</para>
 
214
              </note>
 
215
 
 
216
              <figure float="0" id="fig-eth0">
 
217
                <title>eth0 Properties</title>
 
218
 
 
219
                <mediaobject>
 
220
                  <imageobject>
 
221
                    <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_005.png"
 
222
                               format="PNG" width="7cm" />
 
223
                  </imageobject>
 
224
                </mediaobject>
 
225
              </figure>
 
226
            </step>
 
227
          </substeps>
 
228
        </step>
 
229
 
 
230
        <step performance="required">
 
231
          <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">OK</emphasis> to complete the
 
232
          configuration for the cable connection.</para>
 
233
 
 
234
          <figure float="0">
 
235
            <title>Network Settings</title>
 
236
 
 
237
            <mediaobject>
 
238
              <imageobject>
 
239
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_006.png"
 
240
                           format="PNG" vendor="" width="9cm" />
 
241
              </imageobject>
 
242
            </mediaobject>
 
243
          </figure>
 
244
 
 
245
          <para>Now, you can connect to the Internet by using the
 
246
          cable.</para>
 
247
        </step>
 
248
      </procedure>
 
249
    </sect2>
 
250
 
 
251
    <sect2>
 
252
      <title>Using a Wireless Card</title>
 
253
 
 
254
      <para>Ubuntu automatically detects support for various wireless
 
255
      cards.</para>
 
256
 
 
257
      <procedure>
 
258
        <title>To determine whether Ubuntu supports the wireless card on your
 
259
        computer:</title>
 
260
 
 
261
        <step performance="required">
 
262
          <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> menu, point
 
263
          to <emphasis role="strong">Administration</emphasis> and then click
 
264
          <emphasis role="strong">Network</emphasis>. The <emphasis
 
265
          role="strong">Network Settings</emphasis> dialogue box will be
 
266
          displayed.</para>
 
267
        </step>
 
268
 
 
269
        <step performance="required">
 
270
          <para>If the wireless card on your computer is listed, you can use
 
271
          the same procedure as listed in the <emphasis role="strong">Using
 
272
          Cable Connection</emphasis> section to connect to the
 
273
          Internet.</para>
 
274
 
 
275
          <figure float="0" id="fig-wireless">
 
276
            <title>Choosing a Wireless Connection</title>
 
277
 
 
278
            <mediaobject>
 
279
              <imageobject>
 
280
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_007.png"
 
281
                           format="PNG" width="6cm" />
 
282
              </imageobject>
 
283
            </mediaobject>
 
284
          </figure>
 
285
 
 
286
          <para>Alternatively, left-click on Network Manager and discover any
 
287
          detected wireless networks in range.</para>
 
288
        </step>
 
289
      </procedure>
 
290
 
 
291
      <tip>
 
292
        <title>Nice to Know:</title>
 
293
 
 
294
        <para>To view the complete list of wireless cards that work with
 
295
        Ubuntu, refer to: <ulink
 
296
        url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/WifiDocs/WirelessCardsSupported">https://help.ubuntu.com/community/WifiDocs/WirelessCardsSupported</ulink>.</para>
 
297
      </tip>
 
298
 
 
299
      <para>Some wireless cards are not listed on the Ubuntu Web site because
 
300
      open source drivers for these are not available. Therefore, these cards
 
301
      do not work automatically with Ubuntu. If your wireless network card
 
302
      does not have an open source driver, you can make it work by using
 
303
      <emphasis role="strong">ndiswrapper</emphasis>.</para>
 
304
 
 
305
      <formalpara>
 
306
        <title>Using Ndiswrapper with a Wireless Card</title>
 
307
 
 
308
        <para>Ndiswrapper is a Linux module that allows Ubuntu to use
 
309
        Microsoft Windows drivers for wireless cards. The utility to configure
 
310
        ndiswrapper can be installed comfortably via <emphasis
 
311
        role="strong">Add/Remove Applications</emphasis>. The <emphasis
 
312
        role="strong">Windows Wireless Drivers</emphasis> setup programme can
 
313
        be found in <emphasis role="strong">System
 
314
        Administration</emphasis>.</para>
 
315
      </formalpara>
 
316
    </sect2>
 
317
 
 
318
    <sect2>
 
319
      <title>Using a Dial-up Connection</title>
 
320
 
 
321
      <para>A dial-up connection uses a modem to connect to the Internet. You
 
322
      can use the ScanModem tool to identify the type of modem. This tool
 
323
      recognises the type of modem-whether it is a Peripheral Component
 
324
      Interconnect (PCI) or a Universal Serial Bus (USB) modem.</para>
 
325
 
 
326
      <tip>
 
327
        <title>Nice to Know:</title>
 
328
 
 
329
        <para>To download the ScanModem tool, refer to: <ulink
 
330
        url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/DialupModemHowto/ScanModem">https://help.ubuntu.com/community/DialupModemHowto/ScanModem</ulink>.</para>
 
331
      </tip>
 
332
 
 
333
      <procedure>
 
334
        <title>To use a dial-up connection:</title>
 
335
 
 
336
        <step performance="required">
 
337
          <para>Download, configure and install your modem's driver. If an
 
338
          open source driver is not available, contact your vendor for other
 
339
          options.</para>
 
340
 
 
341
          <note>
 
342
            <title>Note:</title>
 
343
 
 
344
            <para>To download the open source driver, refer to <ulink
 
345
            url="www.modemdriver.com">www.modemdriver.com</ulink>.</para>
 
346
          </note>
 
347
        </step>
 
348
 
 
349
        <step performance="required">
 
350
          <title>Configure the dial-up connection to your ISP:</title>
 
351
 
 
352
          <substeps performance="required">
 
353
            <step performance="required">
 
354
              <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> menu,
 
355
              point to <emphasis role="strong">Administration</emphasis> and
 
356
              click <emphasis role="strong">Network</emphasis>. The <emphasis
 
357
              role="strong">Network Settings</emphasis> dialogue box will be
 
358
              displayed.</para>
 
359
            </step>
 
360
 
 
361
            <step performance="required">
 
362
              <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Network Settings</emphasis>
 
363
              dialogue box, select <emphasis role="strong">Modem
 
364
              connection</emphasis> and click <emphasis
 
365
              role="strong">Properties.</emphasis> The <emphasis
 
366
              role="strong">ppp0 Properties</emphasis> dialogue box will be
 
367
              displayed.</para>
 
368
 
 
369
              <figure float="0" id="fig-modem">
 
370
                <title>Network Settings</title>
 
371
 
 
372
                <mediaobject>
 
373
                  <imageobject>
 
374
                    <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_009.png"
 
375
                               format="PNG" width="6cm" />
 
376
                  </imageobject>
 
377
                </mediaobject>
 
378
              </figure>
 
379
            </step>
 
380
 
 
381
            <step performance="required">
 
382
              <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">ppp0 Properties</emphasis>
 
383
              dialogue box, select the <emphasis role="strong">Enable this
 
384
              connection</emphasis> check box to activate the
 
385
              connection.</para>
 
386
            </step>
 
387
 
 
388
            <step performance="required">
 
389
              <para>Specify your ISP's information and your account
 
390
              information, which you can obtain form your ISP.</para>
 
391
 
 
392
              <para>Type the phone number in the <emphasis role="strong">Phone
 
393
              number</emphasis> and the dial prefix in the <emphasis
 
394
              role="strong">Dial prefix</emphasis> box, which the modem uses
 
395
              to connect to the server. Type your dial-up account name in the
 
396
              <emphasis role="strong">Username</emphasis> box and the password
 
397
              in the <emphasis role="strong">Password</emphasis> box. The user
 
398
              name is the one that is registered with your ISP.</para>
 
399
            </step>
 
400
 
 
401
            <step performance="required">
 
402
              <para>Specify the modem setting on the Modem tabbed page. Click
 
403
              the <emphasis role="strong">Modem</emphasis> tab. Type or select
 
404
              the modem port in the <emphasis role="strong">Modem
 
405
              port</emphasis> box. Select the dial type from the <emphasis
 
406
              role="strong">Dial type</emphasis> box. You can select the types
 
407
              of phone dial used in the <emphasis role="strong">Dial
 
408
              type</emphasis> box. Dial type depends on your phone company and
 
409
              may be <emphasis role="strong">Tones</emphasis> or <emphasis
 
410
              role="strong">Pulses</emphasis>. If you do not know which dial
 
411
              type to choose, contact your phone company. Irrespective of the
 
412
              dial type, the modem will make some noise while connecting to
 
413
              the ISP server. You can set the volume of this noise by
 
414
              selecting the appropriate volume options from the <emphasis
 
415
              role="strong">Volume</emphasis> box-it is recommended that you
 
416
              select <emphasis role="strong">Off</emphasis> or <emphasis
 
417
              role="strong">Low</emphasis>.</para>
 
418
            </step>
 
419
 
 
420
            <step performance="required">
 
421
              <para>Specify the connection settings. Click the <emphasis
 
422
              role="strong">Options</emphasis> tab and select the <emphasis
 
423
              role="strong">Set modem as default route to Internet</emphasis>
 
424
              check box to specify the dial-up modem as the default Internet
 
425
              connection. If you use a laptop on a local area network (LAN),
 
426
              clear the <emphasis role="strong">Set modem as default route to
 
427
              Internet</emphasis> check box. Select this option only if you
 
428
              use a dial-up connection.</para>
 
429
 
 
430
              <para>As part of modem connection settings, you need to assign a
 
431
              host name to an IP node to identify it as a TCP/IP host. You can
 
432
              select your ISP server for this name resolution of hosts, which
 
433
              maps a host name to an IP address successfully. For this, select
 
434
              the <emphasis role="strong">Use the Internet service provider
 
435
              nameservers</emphasis> check box.</para>
 
436
 
 
437
              <para>If the Internet connection breaks, your modem will
 
438
              automatically try reconnecting to the Internet if the <emphasis
 
439
              role="strong">Retry if the connection breaks or fails to
 
440
              start</emphasis> check box is selected.</para>
 
441
            </step>
 
442
 
 
443
            <step performance="required">
 
444
              <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">OK</emphasis> to complete
 
445
              the dial-up configuration.</para>
 
446
 
 
447
              <figure float="0">
 
448
                <title>pppo Properties</title>
 
449
 
 
450
                <mediaobject>
 
451
                  <imageobject>
 
452
                    <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_010.png"
 
453
                               format="PNG" width="7cm" />
 
454
                  </imageobject>
 
455
                </mediaobject>
 
456
              </figure>
 
457
            </step>
 
458
          </substeps>
 
459
        </step>
 
460
      </procedure>
 
461
 
 
462
      <para>Now, you can connect to the Internet using a dial-up
 
463
      connection.</para>
 
464
 
 
465
      <note userlevel="instructor">
 
466
        <title>Instructor Notes:</title>
 
467
 
 
468
        <para>If students need to connect to the Internet with the modem
 
469
        integrated into a mobile phone or configure Point-to-Point (PPP)
 
470
        dial-up through a Bluetooth-compatible mobile phone, refer to: <ulink
 
471
        url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/BluetoothDialup">https://help.ubuntu.com/community/BluetoothDialup</ulink>.</para>
 
472
 
 
473
        <para>To connect to the Internet through a mobile phone over a USB
 
474
        cable, refer to: <ulink
 
475
        url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/CableDialup">https://help.ubuntu.com/community/CableDialup</ulink>.</para>
 
476
      </note>
 
477
    </sect2>
 
478
  </sect1>
 
479
 
 
480
  <sect1>
 
481
    <title>Browsing the Web</title>
 
482
 
 
483
    <para>Mozilla Firefox is the default web browser on Ubuntu. It is open
 
484
    sourced, developed by the Mozilla Corporation and many external
 
485
    contributors and is fully compatible with Ubuntu. To open a Firefox Web
 
486
    browser, on the <emphasis role="strong">Applications</emphasis> menu,
 
487
    point to <emphasis role="strong">Internet</emphasis> and click <emphasis
 
488
    role="strong">Firefox Web Browser</emphasis>. <figure float="0">
 
489
        <title>Launching Firefox Web Browser</title>
 
490
 
 
491
        <mediaobject>
 
492
          <imageobject>
 
493
            <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_011.png" format="PNG"
 
494
                       width="12cm" />
 
495
          </imageobject>
 
496
        </mediaobject>
 
497
      </figure></para>
 
498
 
 
499
    <para>Firefox includes two powerful features that make your online
 
500
    experience more productive - an integrated search system and live
 
501
    bookmarking.</para>
 
502
 
 
503
    <note userlevel="instructor">
 
504
      <title>Instructor Notes:</title>
 
505
 
 
506
      <para>Ask students to open this browser and try performing a
 
507
      search.</para>
 
508
    </note>
 
509
 
 
510
    <formalpara>
 
511
      <title>Integrated Search</title>
 
512
 
 
513
      <para>This feature enables you to search for and find any information.
 
514
      The Search bar comes pre-loaded with search engines for Google, Yahoo!,
 
515
      Amazon, eBay, Answers.com and Creative Commons. You can enter a search
 
516
      term in the Search bar and receive immediate answers from the search
 
517
      engine you choose. You can select a new search engine from the Search
 
518
      bar menu at any time and add search engines from favourite Web sites.
 
519
      <figure float="0">
 
520
          <title><emphasis role="italic">Available Search
 
521
          Engines</emphasis></title>
 
522
 
 
523
          <mediaobject>
 
524
            <imageobject>
 
525
              <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_012.png" format="PNG"
 
526
                         width="6cm" />
 
527
            </imageobject>
 
528
          </mediaobject>
 
529
        </figure></para>
 
530
    </formalpara>
 
531
 
 
532
    <formalpara>
 
533
      <title>Search Suggestions</title>
 
534
 
 
535
      <para>To further ease your search-related tasks, some search engines
 
536
      such as Google, Yahoo and Answers.com in Firefox, suggest search terms.
 
537
      Begin typing into the Search bar and a list of suggestions will
 
538
      appear.</para>
 
539
    </formalpara>
 
540
 
 
541
    <para>For example, if you type <emphasis role="strong">king</emphasis> in
 
542
    the Search bar, a list of suggestions to complete your search keyword is
 
543
    displayed. So instead of typing the complete term, you can select the
 
544
    required term from the list. This makes the search easy and quick.</para>
 
545
 
 
546
    <para>The following graphic shows a list of suggestions, when you start
 
547
    typing in the Search bar:</para>
 
548
 
 
549
    <figure float="0">
 
550
      <title>List of Suggestions</title>
 
551
 
 
552
      <mediaobject>
 
553
        <imageobject>
 
554
          <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_013.png" format="PNG"
 
555
                     width="6cm" />
 
556
        </imageobject>
 
557
      </mediaobject>
 
558
    </figure>
 
559
 
 
560
    <formalpara>
 
561
      <title>Live Bookmarks</title>
 
562
 
 
563
      <para>If you come across an interesting Web site over the Internet and
 
564
      would like to keep it for future reference, without trying to remember
 
565
      the URL, create a bookmark. The next time you are online, simply click
 
566
      the link to go to that Web page. You can view Web feeds such as news and
 
567
      blog headlines in the bookmarks toolbar or menu. A Web feed or feed is
 
568
      an XML Web page that contains a list of links to other Web pages. You
 
569
      can quickly review the latest headlines from your favourite sites and
 
570
      click to go directly to chapters of interest.</para>
 
571
    </formalpara>
 
572
 
 
573
    <note>
 
574
      <title>Note:</title>
 
575
 
 
576
      <para>A Bookmark in Firefox, similar to favourites in Internet Explorer,
 
577
      is a useful browser feature.</para>
 
578
    </note>
 
579
 
 
580
    <procedure>
 
581
      <title>To create a live bookmark in Firefox:</title>
 
582
 
 
583
      <step performance="required">
 
584
        <para>Open the Firefox Web browser. On the <emphasis
 
585
        role="strong">Bookmarks</emphasis> menu, click <emphasis
 
586
        role="strong">Organise Bookmarks</emphasis>.</para>
 
587
 
 
588
        <para>The <emphasis role="strong">Bookmarks Manager</emphasis> window
 
589
        will be displayed.</para>
 
590
 
 
591
        <figure float="0">
 
592
          <title>Organising Bookmarks</title>
 
593
 
 
594
          <mediaobject>
 
595
            <imageobject>
 
596
              <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_014.png" format="PNG"
 
597
                         width="5cm" />
 
598
            </imageobject>
 
599
          </mediaobject>
 
600
        </figure>
 
601
      </step>
 
602
 
 
603
      <step performance="required">
 
604
        <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">File</emphasis> menu, click
 
605
        <emphasis role="strong">New Live Bookmark</emphasis>. The <emphasis
 
606
        role="strong">Properties for New Bookmark</emphasis> dialogue box will
 
607
        be displayed.</para>
 
608
 
 
609
        <figure float="0">
 
610
          <title>Adding Live Bookmarks</title>
 
611
 
 
612
          <mediaobject>
 
613
            <imageobject>
 
614
              <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_015.png" format="PNG"
 
615
                         width="10cm" />
 
616
            </imageobject>
 
617
          </mediaobject>
 
618
        </figure>
 
619
      </step>
 
620
 
 
621
      <step performance="required">
 
622
        <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Name</emphasis> box, type the
 
623
        name you want to give to the feed. Make sure that the name reflects
 
624
        the contents of the Web site and includes enough information to
 
625
        uniquely identify the data file. Type the feed location-the URL of the
 
626
        feed in the <emphasis role="strong">Feed Location</emphasis> box and
 
627
        the description of the feed in the <emphasis
 
628
        role="strong">Description</emphasis> box. If you want, you can skip
 
629
        giving the description, though these can be used to categorise various
 
630
        feeds under groups. Click <emphasis role="strong">OK</emphasis> and
 
631
        close the <emphasis role="strong">Bookmarks Manager</emphasis> window.
 
632
        This sets the bookmark.</para>
 
633
 
 
634
        <figure float="0">
 
635
          <title>Viewing Bookmark Properties</title>
 
636
 
 
637
          <mediaobject>
 
638
            <imageobject>
 
639
              <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_016.png" format="PNG"
 
640
                         width="8cm" />
 
641
            </imageobject>
 
642
          </mediaobject>
 
643
        </figure>
 
644
      </step>
 
645
 
 
646
      <step performance="required">
 
647
        <para>In the Firefox Web browser, on the <emphasis
 
648
        role="strong">Bookmarks</emphasis> menu, point to <emphasis
 
649
        role="strong">New Live Bookmark</emphasis>. This displays the list of
 
650
        feeds, their respective locations and description. To locate the one
 
651
        you are looking for, you can sort this list on name, location or
 
652
        description. Just click the one you want to quickly browse through. It
 
653
        opens in the Mozilla Firefox window.</para>
 
654
      </step>
 
655
    </procedure>
 
656
  </sect1>
 
657
 
 
658
  <sect1>
 
659
    <title>Accessing News</title>
 
660
 
 
661
    <para>News can be retrieved from the Internet in different ways. Using
 
662
    Usenet and RSS for access is covered below.</para>
 
663
 
 
664
    <para>Newsgroups are online notice boards where people post comments and
 
665
    discuss subjects of mutual interest. They are technically distinct from,
 
666
    but functionally similar to discussion forums on the World Wide Web.
 
667
    Anyone can participate in the discussion and post thoughts. At the rate at
 
668
    which newsgroups are growing, it is safe to say that there are groups
 
669
    covering most subjects imaginable; from computers to social issues, pet
 
670
    advice, literature and science, job postings and housing to rent etc. It
 
671
    is a fast and easy way to communicate, share views and advertise to people
 
672
    all over the world. Newsreaders are the applications used to access
 
673
    newsgroups.</para>
 
674
 
 
675
    <para>USEr NETwork (Usenet) is the main source of newsgroups and
 
676
    newsfeeds. It is an Internet discussion system where people read and post
 
677
    e-mail-like messages called posts to one or more of a number of
 
678
    newsgroups.</para>
 
679
 
 
680
    <para>To join a newsgroup, you create a subscribed list and your
 
681
    newsreader stores the information. You will receive alerts when people
 
682
    have posted new listings and when you check to read the latest update,
 
683
    there will be a posting and bunch of messages from several people. You
 
684
    will see something that looks similar to your e-mail inbox. You can decide
 
685
    whether to reply to the newsgroup, the author or to both. Some people
 
686
    prefer not to constantly receive email messages and log in from time to
 
687
    time to see the latest updates. The news server posts do expire after a
 
688
    certain length of time, as determined by the person running the
 
689
    server.</para>
 
690
 
 
691
    <para>There are two types of newsreaders, online and offline. The online
 
692
    newsreader downloads just the message headers, and you see what looks like
 
693
    a mailbox. The messages themselves however, are not on your machine. As
 
694
    you access a particular message, the newsreader retrieves it from the
 
695
    server. When you are done reading a message, it is not stored on your
 
696
    machine, unless you save it specifically. Offline newsreaders, on the
 
697
    other hand, connect to the server, download all new messages for the
 
698
    newsgroups to which you are subscribed, upload any posts you wrote since
 
699
    the last time you connected to the server, and then disconnect. You can
 
700
    then read the messages as you wish, composing replies and new posts to be
 
701
    uploaded next time you choose to connect.</para>
 
702
 
 
703
    <para>Many news related Web sites do offer news feeds that allow you to
 
704
    see when Web sites have added new content. You can get the latest
 
705
    headlines and video in one place, as soon as it is published, without
 
706
    having to visit the Websites you have taken the feed from. Feeds, also
 
707
    known as Really Simple Syndication (RSS), are just Web pages.</para>
 
708
 
 
709
    <para>In this section we will cover two types of Newsreaders, Linux Feed
 
710
    Reader (Liferea) for news feeds and Thunderbird for Usenet news.</para>
 
711
 
 
712
    <sect2>
 
713
      <title>Liferea Newsreader</title>
 
714
 
 
715
      <note userlevel="instructor">
 
716
        <title>Instructor Notes:</title>
 
717
 
 
718
        <para>While teaching, demonstrate how to access Liferea and
 
719
        Thunderbird.</para>
 
720
      </note>
 
721
 
 
722
      <para>Liferea is an online RSS feed reader. It is a fast, easy-to-use
 
723
      and easy-to-install news accumulator for GTK/GNOME.</para>
 
724
 
 
725
      <note>
 
726
        <title>Note:</title>
 
727
 
 
728
        <para>You can install Liferea on Ubuntu using the Synaptic Package
 
729
        Manager by following the procedure described in <emphasis
 
730
        role="strong">Using Alternative E-Mail Client</emphasis>
 
731
        section.</para>
 
732
      </note>
 
733
 
 
734
      <para>The Web sites that offer RSS feeds display an RSS feed symbol next
 
735
      to its URL.</para>
 
736
 
 
737
      <figure float="0">
 
738
        <title>Identifying RSS Feed Providing Web Sites</title>
 
739
 
 
740
        <mediaobject>
 
741
          <imageobject>
 
742
            <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_017.png" format="PNG"
 
743
                       width="15cm" />
 
744
          </imageobject>
 
745
        </mediaobject>
 
746
      </figure>
 
747
 
 
748
      <para><emphasis role="strong">Accessing Liferea</emphasis></para>
 
749
 
 
750
      <note>
 
751
        <title>Note:</title>
 
752
 
 
753
        <para>You have to search the Web site that offers RSS feeds to access
 
754
        Liferea. Look through the complete list of newsgroups on your server
 
755
        to search for the group that interests you.</para>
 
756
      </note>
 
757
 
 
758
      <procedure>
 
759
        <title>To access Liferea:</title>
 
760
 
 
761
        <step performance="required">
 
762
          <para>Open the Web page that offers RSS feeds.</para>
 
763
 
 
764
          <figure float="0">
 
765
            <title>Opening RSS Feed Web Page</title>
 
766
 
 
767
            <mediaobject>
 
768
              <imageobject>
 
769
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_018.png"
 
770
                           format="PNG" width="12.5cm" />
 
771
              </imageobject>
 
772
            </mediaobject>
 
773
          </figure>
 
774
        </step>
 
775
 
 
776
        <step performance="required">
 
777
          <para>On this Web page, search for the link that offers RSS feed.
 
778
          Click the link and save the URL of that link. This URL will be the
 
779
          feed.</para>
 
780
 
 
781
          <figure float="0">
 
782
            <title>Searching the Link</title>
 
783
 
 
784
            <mediaobject>
 
785
              <imageobject>
 
786
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_019.png"
 
787
                           format="PNG" width="12.5cm" />
 
788
              </imageobject>
 
789
            </mediaobject>
 
790
          </figure>
 
791
        </step>
 
792
 
 
793
        <step performance="required">
 
794
          <para>Open Liferea. On the <emphasis
 
795
          role="strong">Applications</emphasis> menu, point to <emphasis
 
796
          role="strong">Internet</emphasis> and click <emphasis
 
797
          role="strong">Liferea Feed Reader.</emphasis></para>
 
798
 
 
799
          <figure float="0">
 
800
            <title>Launching Liferea Feed Reader</title>
 
801
 
 
802
            <mediaobject>
 
803
              <imageobject>
 
804
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_020.png"
 
805
                           format="PNG" width="12cm" />
 
806
              </imageobject>
 
807
            </mediaobject>
 
808
          </figure>
 
809
        </step>
 
810
 
 
811
        <step performance="required">
 
812
          <para>To subscribe to the feed, right-click anywhere on the
 
813
          left-pane of the Liferea window, point to New and click <emphasis
 
814
          role="strong">New Subscription</emphasis>. The <emphasis
 
815
          role="strong">New Subscription</emphasis> dialogue box will be
 
816
          displayed.</para>
 
817
 
 
818
          <figure float="0">
 
819
            <title>Subscribing to RSS Feeds</title>
 
820
 
 
821
            <mediaobject>
 
822
              <imageobject>
 
823
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_021.png"
 
824
                           format="PNG" width="15cm" />
 
825
              </imageobject>
 
826
            </mediaobject>
 
827
          </figure>
 
828
        </step>
 
829
 
 
830
        <step performance="required">
 
831
          <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">New Subscription</emphasis>
 
832
          dialogue box, paste the URL, which is the feed, and click <emphasis
 
833
          role="strong">OK</emphasis>. You will see a new feed in the
 
834
          <emphasis role="strong">Liferea</emphasis> window.</para>
 
835
 
 
836
          <figure float="0">
 
837
            <title>Entering Feed Source</title>
 
838
 
 
839
            <mediaobject>
 
840
              <imageobject>
 
841
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_022.png"
 
842
                           format="PNG" width="7cm" />
 
843
              </imageobject>
 
844
            </mediaobject>
 
845
          </figure>
 
846
 
 
847
          <para>The following graphic shows the new feed in Liferea.</para>
 
848
 
 
849
          <figure float="0">
 
850
            <title>Viewing New Feeds</title>
 
851
 
 
852
            <mediaobject>
 
853
              <imageobject>
 
854
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson04_images_023.png"
&