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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
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<!DOCTYPE chapter PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN" "http://docbook.org/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd">
 
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<!DOCTYPE chapter PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.3//EN"
 
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"http://docbook.org/xml/4.3/docbookx.dtd">
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<chapter>
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                <title>Customising the Desktop and Applications</title>
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                <para><emphasis role="strong">Objectives</emphasis></para>
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                <para>In this lesson, you will learn how to:</para>
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                <itemizedlist>
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                        <listitem>
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                                <para>Customise the look and feel of the Ubuntu desktop</para>
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                        </listitem>
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                        <listitem>
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                                <para>Work with the Nautilus file manager</para>
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                        </listitem>
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                        <listitem>
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                                <para>Add and remove applications</para>
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                        </listitem>
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                        <listitem>
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                                <para>Identify the types of single package files and their use</para>
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                        </listitem>
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                        <listitem>
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                                <para>Install and uninstall Debian packages</para>
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                        </listitem>
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                        <listitem>
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                                <para>Identify the categories of software repositories</para>
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                        </listitem>
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                        <listitem>
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                                <para>Add extra repositories</para>
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                        </listitem>
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                </itemizedlist>
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                <sect1>
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                        <title>Introduction</title>
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                        <para>The Ubuntu desktop comes completely clean and free of pre-determined 
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                        icons and buttons. You may want to add icons    which implies a need for customisation.</para>
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                        <para>In this lesson, you will learn about various ways to set up your Ubuntu
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                        desktop to suit your requirements. You will also learn how to install and
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                        uninstall various software applications.</para>
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                </sect1>
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                <sect1>
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                        <title>Customising the Desktop</title>
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                        <para>Ubuntu and its derivatives can be customised through a Graphical User Interface or a Command Line Interface.</para>
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                        <para>The graphical tools for Ubuntu are available as menu options in
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                        the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> menu. Point to
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                        <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis> on the
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                        <emphasis role="strong">System menu</emphasis> to view the tools.
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                        </para>
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                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
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                                <para>The System - Preferences menu enables users to customise their own
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                                desktop environment but not that of other users on the same
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                                computer. In contrast, applications on the System - Administration menu
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                                will make changes to the computer that will affect all users.</para></note>
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                                <sect2>
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                                <title>Changing the Background</title>
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                                <para>The desktop background is the image or colour applied to your
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                                desktop. To change the background of the desktop:</para>
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                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
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                                        <listitem>
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                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
58
 
                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis>
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                                                and then click <emphasis role="strong">Appearance</emphasis>. 
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                                                The <emphasis role="strong">
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                                                Appearance Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box
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                                                opens.</para>
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                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Appearance Preferences Dialogue Box</emphasis></title>
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                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
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                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_001.png" format="PNG" />
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                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
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                                                </figure>
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                                                <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
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                                                <para>You can also right-click the desktop and select
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                                                <emphasis role="strong">Change Desktop Background</emphasis>
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                                                to open the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences
72
 
                                                </emphasis> dialogue box.</para></tip>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                        <listitem>
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                                                <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences
76
 
                                                </emphasis> dialogue box, select a desktop
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                                                wallpaper from the available wallpapers. 
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                                                The background changes immediately.</para>
79
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Changing Desktop Wallpaper</emphasis></title>
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                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
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                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_002.png" format="PNG" />
82
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
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                                                </figure>
84
 
                                        <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
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                                                <para>To view the name of the wallpaper, move the pointer over its name.
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                                                </para></tip>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                        <listitem>
89
 
                                                <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> in
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                                                the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis>
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                                                dialogue box to apply the changes.</para>
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                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Applying Preference Change</emphasis></title>
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                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
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                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_003.png" format="PNG" />
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                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
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                                                </figure>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                </orderedlist>
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                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Adding a New Wallpaper</emphasis></para>
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                                <para>In addition to the wallpapers available with Ubuntu, you can download wallpapers from 
101
 
                                other sources and add them to the available wallpapers list in the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences
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                                </emphasis> dialogue box. To do this:
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                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
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                                        <listitem>
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                                                <para>Open the Web site
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                                                <ulink url="http://art.gnome.org/">http://art.gnome.org/</ulink>
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                                                and click <emphasis role="strong">Backgrounds</emphasis>.</para>
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                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Opening Wallpaper Source</emphasis></title>
109
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
110
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_004.png" format="PNG" />
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                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
112
 
                                                </figure>
113
 
                                        </listitem>
114
 
                                        <listitem>
115
 
                                                <para>Download the wallpaper of your choice. During the
116
 
                                                download, you can view the screen resolutions available for the
117
 
                                                selected wallpaper. You should download and save the version of your chosen wallpaper 
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                                                that matches the screen resolution of your computer.</para>
119
 
                                        </listitem>
120
 
                                        <listitem>
121
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
122
 
                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis>
123
 
                                                and then click <emphasis role="strong">Appearance
124
 
                                                </emphasis>. The <emphasis role="strong">
125
 
                                                Appearance Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box
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                                                opens.</para>
127
 
                                        </listitem>
128
 
                                        <listitem>
129
 
                                                <para>Click the <emphasis role="strong">Background</emphasis> tab and
130
 
                                                then click <emphasis role="strong">Add</emphasis>.
131
 
                                                The <emphasis role="strong">Add Wallpaper</emphasis>
132
 
                                                dialogue box opens.</para>
133
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Adding a New Wallpaper</emphasis></title>
134
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
135
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_005.png" format="PNG" />
136
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
137
 
                                                </figure>
138
 
                                        </listitem>
139
 
                                        <listitem>
140
 
                                                <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Add Wallpaper</emphasis>
141
 
                                                dialogue box, select the downloaded image and
142
 
                                                click <emphasis role="strong">Open</emphasis>.</para>
143
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting Downloaded Wallpaper</emphasis></title>
144
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
145
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_006.png" format="PNG" />
146
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
147
 
                                                </figure>
148
 
                                                <para>This step adds the image as new wallpaper.</para>
149
 
                                        </listitem>
150
 
                                        <listitem>
151
 
                                                <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> in
152
 
                                                the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis>
153
 
                                                dialogue box to accept the changes. You can now
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                                                view the new desktop background.</para>
155
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Added Wallpaper</emphasis></title>
156
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
157
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_007.png" format="PNG" />
158
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
159
 
                                                </figure>
160
 
                                        </listitem>
161
 
                                </orderedlist>
162
 
                                </para>
163
 
                                <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to know:</emphasis></title>
164
 
                                <para>You can, of course, use a picture from any other source to use as your desktop
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                                background. Many popular online photo collaboration sites allow visitors to 
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                                download and use their content for personal use. Many people also use their own
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                                digital photographs as backgrounds.</para></tip>
168
 
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Changing the Colour of the
169
 
                                Background</emphasis></para>
170
 
                                <para>To change the colour of the background:
171
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
172
 
                                        <listitem>
173
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
174
 
                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis>
175
 
                                                and then click <emphasis role="strong">Appearance</emphasis> 
176
 
                                                to open the <emphasis role="strong"> 
177
 
                                                Appearance Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box.
178
 
                                                </para>
179
 
                                        </listitem>
180
 
                                        <listitem>
181
 
                                                <para>Click the <emphasis role="strong">Background</emphasis> tab 
182
 
                                                and select the wallpaper <emphasis role="strong">No
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                                                Wallpaper</emphasis>. You can view colours only if you have
184
 
                                                not set any desktop wallpaper.</para>
185
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Changing Background Colour</emphasis></title>
186
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
187
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_008.png" format="PNG" />
188
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
189
 
                                                </figure>
190
 
                                        </listitem>
191
 
                                        <listitem>
192
 
                                                <para>The <emphasis role="strong">Colours</emphasis>
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                                                box provides three types of background:
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                                                <emphasis role="strong">Solid colour, Horizontal gradient</emphasis>
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                                                and <emphasis role="strong">Vertical gradient</emphasis>.
196
 
                                                Select the desktop colour of your choice and then
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                                                click the colour chip next to the <emphasis role="strong">
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                                                Colours</emphasis> box. The
199
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Pick a Colour</emphasis> dialogue
200
 
                                                box opens.</para>
201
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting Colour Option</emphasis></title>
202
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
203
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_009.png" format="PNG" />
204
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
205
 
                                                </figure>
206
 
                                        </listitem>
207
 
                                        <listitem>
208
 
                                                <para>Select a colour or the attributes of a colour such as hue
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                                                and saturation to create a colour of your choice. Click
210
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">OK</emphasis>. The desktop reflects the new settings immediately.</para>
211
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Specifying Colour</emphasis></title>
212
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
213
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_010.png" format="PNG" />
214
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
215
 
                                                </figure>
216
 
                                        </listitem>
217
 
                                        <listitem>
218
 
                                                <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> to
219
 
                                                close the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance
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                                                Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box.</para>
221
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Changed Background Colour</emphasis></title>
222
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
223
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_011.png" format="PNG" />
224
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
225
 
                                                </figure>
226
 
                                        </listitem>
227
 
                                </orderedlist>
228
 
                                </para>
229
 
                        </sect2>
230
 
                        <sect2>
231
 
                                <title>Customising the Theme (Buttons &amp; icons etc)</title>
232
 
                                <para>The desktop theme controls the visual appearance of the
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                                buttons, scroll bars, icons, panels, borders etc.
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                                A number of themes are provided with Ubuntu.</para>
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                                <para>To select a theme for your desktop:
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                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
237
 
                                        <listitem>
238
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
239
 
                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis>
240
 
                                                and click <emphasis role="strong">Appearance</emphasis>.
241
 
                                                The <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis>
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                                                dialogue box opens.</para>
243
 
                                        </listitem>
244
 
                                        <listitem>
245
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Theme</emphasis> tab,
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                                                select the theme of your choice. The desktop reflects the
247
 
                                                theme automatically. To customise your theme further, click
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                                                <emphasis role="strong">Customise</emphasis>. The
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                                                <emphasis role="strong">Customise Theme</emphasis> dialogue
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                                                box opens.</para>
251
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Customising Desktop Theme</emphasis></title>
252
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
253
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_012.png" format="PNG" />
254
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
255
 
                                                </figure>
256
 
                                        </listitem>
257
 
                                        <listitem>
258
 
                                                <para>The default selection is <emphasis role="strong">
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                                                Controls</emphasis> tab. The setting on the
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                                                <emphasis role="strong">Controls</emphasis> tabbed page
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                                                defines the visual appearance of windows, panels and applets.
262
 
                                                Select a control from the <emphasis role="strong">Controls</emphasis>
263
 
                                                list. You will see an immediate change in the appearance of
264
 
                                                the open windows.</para>
265
 
                                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
266
 
                                                <para>You can customise the following objects on the screen:</para>
267
 
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Window:</emphasis> A
268
 
                                                rectangular area of the screen with a border and a title bar at
269
 
                                                the top. All graphical applications run inside windows.</para>
270
 
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Panel:</emphasis> An area on
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                                                the desktop from where you can access information
272
 
                                                such as date and time. You can also launch applications and
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                                                add or remove objects from panels. The Ubuntu desktop
274
 
                                                contains two panels, the top edge panel at the top of the
275
 
                                                screen and the bottom edge panel at the bottom of the
276
 
                                                screen.</para>
277
 
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Applet:</emphasis> A small
278
 
                                                application whose user interface resides within a panel.</para>
279
 
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Window Border:</emphasis> 
280
 
                                                The border that appears around windows.  It has a frame at the top of the window
281
 
                                                that contains the name of the application and the edges that allow you to resize the window.</para>
282
 
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Icon:</emphasis> A graphical
283
 
                                                symbol for the applications and options on the panels and
284
 
                                                windows.</para></note>
285
 
                                                <para>Similarly, you can customise the background and text
286
 
                                                colour of your windows, input boxes and selected items by
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                                                configuring the settings on the <emphasis role="strong">Colours</emphasis>
288
 
                                                tab.</para>
289
 
                                                <para>If you want to customise your window borders and icons,
290
 
                                                click the <emphasis role="strong">Window Border</emphasis>
291
 
                                                and <emphasis role="strong">Icons</emphasis> tabs in the
292
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Customise Theme</emphasis> dialogue
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                                                box.</para>
294
 
                                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
295
 
                                                <para>Ubuntu provides additional options to customise your themes. You can
296
 
                                                download more controls, window borders and icons from the
297
 
                                                Web site
298
 
                                                <ulink url="http://art.gnome.org">http://art.gnome.org</ulink>
299
 
                                                and save it at any location on your computer. While customising the theme, click
300
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Install</emphasis> in the
301
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis>
302
 
                                                dialogue box. The <emphasis role="strong">Select Theme</emphasis>
303
 
                                                dialogue box opens, and you can select the
304
 
                                                downloaded objects.</para></note>
305
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting Theme Controls</emphasis></title>
306
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
307
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_013.png" format="PNG" />
308
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
309
 
                                                </figure>
310
 
                                        </listitem>
311
 
                                        <listitem>
312
 
                                                <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> in the
313
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Customise Theme</emphasis> dialogue
314
 
                                                box. To save the theme, click <emphasis role="strong">Save
315
 
                                                As</emphasis> in the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance
316
 
                                                Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box. The
317
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Save Theme As</emphasis> dialogue
318
 
                                                box opens.</para>
319
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Saving Modified Theme</emphasis></title>
320
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
321
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_014.png" format="PNG" />
322
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
323
 
                                                </figure>
324
 
                                        </listitem>
325
 
                                        <listitem>
326
 
                                                <para>Provide a name to the theme in the
327
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Name</emphasis> box and a
328
 
                                                description, if you want, in the
329
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Description</emphasis> box.
330
 
                                                Click <emphasis role="strong">Save</emphasis>.</para>
331
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Specifying Theme Name and Description</emphasis></title>
332
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
333
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_015.png" format="PNG" />
334
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
335
 
                                                </figure>
336
 
                                        </listitem>
337
 
                                        <listitem>
338
 
                                                <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis>
339
 
                                                dialogue box, click <emphasis role="strong">
340
 
                                                Close</emphasis>.</para>
341
 
                                        </listitem>
342
 
                                </orderedlist>
343
 
                                </para>
344
 
                                <para>If you open a menu or window, you can see the changes in their appearance.</para>
345
 
                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Viewing an Application in Modified Theme</emphasis></title>
346
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
347
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_016.png" format="PNG" />
348
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
349
 
                                </figure>
350
 
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Installing New Themes</emphasis></para>
351
 
                                <para>You can also download other Ubuntu-compatible themes from Ubuntu's recommended source.
352
 
                                To install these themes:
353
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
354
 
                                        <listitem>
355
 
                                                <para>Open the Web site and click <emphasis role="strong">
356
 
                                                DesktopThemes</emphasis>.</para>
357
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Opening Theme Source</emphasis></title>
358
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
359
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_017.png" format="PNG" />
360
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
361
 
                                                </figure>
362
 
                                        </listitem>
363
 
                                        <listitem>
364
 
                                                <para>Download a theme of your choice. Select any theme and
365
 
                                                follow the instructions as they appear.</para>
366
 
                                        </listitem>
367
 
                                        <listitem>
368
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
369
 
                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis>
370
 
                                                and click <emphasis role="strong">Appearance</emphasis>.
371
 
                                                The <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis>
372
 
                                                dialogue box opens.</para>
373
 
                                        </listitem>
374
 
                                        <listitem>
375
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Theme</emphasis> tab, 
376
 
                                                click <emphasis role="strong">Install</emphasis>. 
377
 
                                                The <emphasis role="strong">Select Theme</emphasis>
378
 
                                                dialogue box opens.</para>
379
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Installing New Theme</emphasis></title>
380
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
381
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_018.png" format="PNG" />
382
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
383
 
                                                </figure>
384
 
                                        </listitem>
385
 
                                        <listitem>
386
 
                                                <para>Select the downloaded theme and click
387
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Open</emphasis>.</para>
388
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting Downloaded Theme</emphasis></title>
389
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
390
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_019.png" format="PNG" />
391
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
392
 
                                                </figure>
393
 
                                        </listitem>
394
 
                                        <listitem>
395
 
                                                <para>You can apply a new theme or retain the current theme.
396
 
                                                Click <emphasis role="strong">Apply New Theme</emphasis>
397
 
                                                to apply the new theme. The screen will reflect the new theme
398
 
                                                immediately.</para>
399
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Applying New Theme</emphasis></title>
400
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
401
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_020.png" format="PNG" />
402
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
403
 
                                                </figure>
404
 
                                        </listitem>
405
 
                                        <listitem>
406
 
                                                <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> in the
407
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis>
408
 
                                                dialogue box.</para>
409
 
                                                <para>If you open any menu or window, it will reflect the
410
 
                                                selected theme.</para>
411
 
                                                <figure id="fig:chess-blueheart"><title><emphasis role="italic">Chess in Blue Heart Theme</emphasis></title>
412
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
413
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_021.png" format="PNG" />
414
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
415
 
                                                </figure>
416
 
                                        </listitem>
417
 
                                </orderedlist>
418
 
                                </para>
419
 
                        </sect2>
420
 
                        <sect2>
421
 
                                <title>Customising a Screensaver</title>
422
 
                                <para>A screensaver displays (often moving) images on the screen when
423
 
                                your computer is switched on but not in use. To go back to the
424
 
                                workspace, you can move the mouse or press any key on the
425
 
                                keyboard.</para>
426
 
                                <para>You can choose a screensaver and customise it. To
427
 
                                customise a screensaver:
428
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
429
 
                                        <listitem>
430
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
431
 
                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis>
432
 
                                                and click <emphasis role="strong">Screensaver</emphasis>.
433
 
                                                The <emphasis role="strong">Screensaver
434
 
                                                Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box opens.</para>
435
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Screensaver Preferences Dialogue Box</emphasis></title>
436
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
437
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_022.png" format="PNG" />
438
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
439
 
                                                </figure>
440
 
                                        </listitem>
441
 
                                        <listitem>
442
 
                                                <para>Select the screensaver from the list of available
443
 
                                                screensavers. You can preview the screensaver in the right pane.
444
 
                                                </para>
445
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Customising Screensaver Settings</emphasis></title>
446
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
447
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_023.png" format="PNG" />
448
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
449
 
                                                </figure>
450
 
                                        </listitem>
451
 
                                        <listitem>
452
 
                                                <para>The <emphasis role="strong">Regard the computer as
453
 
                                                idle after</emphasis> slider specifies when a screensaver starts
454
 
                                                to work if the computer is not in use. The
455
 
                                                default time is set to 10 minutes. You can use this slider to
456
 
                                                select how long the computer needs to be idle before the
457
 
                                                screensaver activates.</para>
458
 
                                        </listitem>
459
 
                                        <listitem>
460
 
                                                <para>To prevent any tampering of your computer in your
461
 
                                                absence, you can automatically lock your screen the moment
462
 
                                                the screensaver activates. Locking requires users to type their
463
 
                                                password to reactivate the desktop. Select the
464
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Lock screen when screensaver is
465
 
                                                active</emphasis> check box to lock the screen when the
466
 
                                                screensaver starts.</para>
467
 
                                        </listitem>
468
 
                                        <listitem>
469
 
                                                <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis>.</para>
470
 
                                        </listitem>
471
 
                                </orderedlist>
472
 
                                </para>
473
 
                                <para>The selected screensaver displays when the computer is idle
474
 
                                for the specified period.</para>
475
 
                        </sect2>
476
 
                        <sect2>
477
 
                                <title>Customising the Screen Resolution</title>
478
 
                                <para>The screen resolution determines how large or small an item
479
 
                                looks on the screen. To modify the desktop screen resolution:
480
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
481
 
                                        <listitem>
482
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
483
 
                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis>
484
 
                                                and then click <emphasis role="strong">Screen
485
 
                                                Resolution</emphasis>. The <emphasis role="strong">Screen
486
 
                                                Resolution Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box opens.</para>
487
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Screen Resolution Preferences Dialogue Box</emphasis></title>
488
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
489
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_024.png" format="PNG" />
490
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
491
 
                                                </figure>
492
 
                                        </listitem>
493
 
                                        <listitem>
494
 
                                                <para>The default resolution is <emphasis role="strong">
495
 
                                                1280x1024</emphasis>. You can change the resolution in the
496
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Resolution</emphasis> box.</para>
497
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Customising Screen Resolution</emphasis></title>
498
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
499
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_025.png" format="PNG" />
500
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
501
 
                                                </figure>
502
 
                                        </listitem>
503
 
                                        <listitem>
504
 
                                                <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Apply</emphasis>. The
505
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Keep Resolution</emphasis>
506
 
                                                dialogue box opens, prompting you to confirm settings or use
507
 
                                                the previous resolution and revert to the original settings. Click
508
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Keep resolution</emphasis> to apply
509
 
                                                new changes.</para>
510
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Resolution Confirmation Dialogue Box</emphasis></title>
511
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
512
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_026.png" format="PNG" />
513
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
514
 
                                                </figure>
515
 
                                        </listitem>
516
 
                                </orderedlist>
517
 
                                </para>
518
 
                                <para>The screen resolution will change.</para>
519
 
                        </sect2>
520
 
                </sect1>
521
 
                <sect1>
522
 
                        <title>3D Effects</title>
523
 
                        <para>A computer screen is two-dimensional (2D) and until recently most
524
 
                        applications were developed in a 2D layout.</para>
525
 
                        <para>However, advancements in technology fuelled the demand for more life-like on screen visuals,
526
 
                        as in three-dimensional (3D) modelling and games. The operating system
527
 
                        needs to perform complex calculations to display 3D images in 2D. Consequently, to
528
 
                        reduce the burden on the operating system and increase the speed of applications, 3D
529
 
                        accelerator cards were developed, which use the graphics processor on the graphics
530
 
                        card instead of consuming valuable CPU resources. Almost all modern graphics cards
531
 
                        have a built-in acceleration to display 3D.</para>
532
 
                        <para>Ubuntu can utilize the 3D capabilities of a graphics card for desktop effects. An example of
533
 
                        these can be seen with Compiz Fusion – spinning cubes, floating windows etc. Compiz Fusion is a fun application used to liven up your desktop experience and make it 3D in appearance.</para>
534
 
                        <para>The effects are enabled by default and can be controlled from the <emphasis role='strong'>Appearance</emphasis> menu. From here the 
535
 
                        desktop effects can either be completely disabled or enabled. The number of effects can be controlled via the <emphasis role='strong'>normal effects</emphasis> 
536
 
                        and <emphasis role='strong'>extra effects</emphasis> setting.</para>
537
 
                        <para>If a graphics card does not have 3D capabilities or support for 3D is missing from the Linux drivers for the card, you will be notified that <emphasis role='strong'>Desktop effects could not be enabled</emphasis>.</para>
538
 
                </sect1>
539
 
                <sect1>
540
 
                        <title>Working with Files Using Nautilus</title>
541
 
                        <para>The Nautilus file manager in Ubuntu provides a simple and
542
 
                        integrated way to manage files and applications.</para>
543
 
                        <sect2>
544
 
                                <title>Features of Nautilus</title>
545
 
                                <para>The Nautilus file manager enables you to organise files into
546
 
                                folders and perform tasks such as:</para>
547
 
                                <itemizedlist>
548
 
                                        <listitem>
549
 
                                                <para>Create and display folders and documents: Create new files, organise them
550
 
                                                into folders and save them.
551
 
                                                </para>
552
 
                                        </listitem>
553
 
                                        <listitem>
554
 
                                                <para>Search and manage your files: Classify files and
555
 
                                                search them as per their classification.</para>
556
 
                                        </listitem>
557
 
                                        <listitem>
558
 
                                                <para>Open special locations on your computer: Access the local network and save your files.
559
 
                                                </para>
560
 
                                        </listitem>
561
 
                                        <listitem>
562
 
                                                <para>Write data to a CD or DVD</para>
563
 
                                        </listitem>
564
 
                                        <listitem>
565
 
                                                <para>Navigate using two modes:</para>
566
 
                                                <itemizedlist>
567
 
                                                        <listitem>
568
 
                                                                <para>Spatial mode: Allows you to open each
569
 
                                                                folder in a separate window, which then helps open your files as
570
 
                                                                physical objects in different locations. You can view the
571
 
                                                                content of various folders simultaneously.</para>
572
 
                                                        </listitem>
573
 
                                                        <listitem>
574
 
                                                                <para>Browser mode: Opens your folders in a
575
 
                                                                single window. Only one file manager opens in browser
576
 
                                                                mode, and it is updated when you click another folder in the
577
 
                                                                file manager.</para>
578
 
                                                        </listitem>
579
 
                                                </itemizedlist>
580
 
                                        </listitem>
581
 
                                </itemizedlist>
582
 
                                <instructornote><title>Instructor Notes:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">Compare browser mode with 
583
 
                                Firefox to help students appreciate the similarity.</emphasis></para>
584
 
                        </instructornote>
585
 
                        </sect2>
586
 
                        <sect2>
587
 
                                <title>Nautilus</title>
588
 
                        <para>To choose the required mode:</para>
589
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
590
 
                                        <listitem>
591
 
                                                <para>Click the <emphasis role="strong">Places</emphasis>
592
 
                                                menu. A list of items appears:
593
 
                                                <itemizedlist>
594
 
                                                        <listitem>
595
 
                                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Home Folder:</emphasis>
596
 
                                                                This is a personal folder created by default for every user
597
 
                                                                to create and work on files. It takes the user name by
598
 
                                                                default.</para>
599
 
                                                        </listitem>
600
 
                                                        <listitem>
601
 
                                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Desktop:</emphasis> An
602
 
                                                                active component that lies behind all the screens on
603
 
                                                                your computer and provides easy and quick access to
604
 
                                                                the files saved on it.</para>
605
 
                                                        </listitem>
606
 
                                                        <listitem>
607
 
                                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Computer:</emphasis> Contains all drives and file systems;
608
 
                                                                makes document backup onto CD and DVD really simple.</para>
609
 
                                                        </listitem>
610
 
                                                        <listitem>
611
 
                                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">CD/DVD Creator:</emphasis>
612
 
                                                                It consists of folders that you can write to a CD or a
613
 
                                                                DVD. You can also back up your documents on a CD or
614
 
                                                                a DVD.</para>
615
 
                                                        </listitem>
616
 
                                                </itemizedlist>
617
 
                                        </para>
618
 
                                        </listitem>
619
 
                                        <listitem>
620
 
                                                <para>Click any of the above items on the
621
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Places</emphasis> menu.</para>
622
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Using Nautilus File Manager</emphasis></title>
623
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
624
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_027.png" format="PNG" />
625
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
626
 
                                                </figure>
627
 
                                                <para>The Nautilus file manager opens files in browser mode by default. If you open a folder in this mode,
628
 
                                                the folder will open in the same window. The location bar shows
629
 
                                                the current location of the opened folder in the hierarchy of
630
 
                                                folders, and the sidebar shows other folders saved on your
631
 
                                                computer.</para>
632
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Files Display</emphasis></title>
633
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
634
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_028.png" format="PNG" />
635
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
636
 
                                                </figure>
637
 
                                                <para>While in browser mode, you can move to the parent folder
638
 
                                                that contains the currently open folder. To move to the parent
639
 
                                                folder, click <emphasis role="strong">Open Parent</emphasis>
640
 
                                                on the <emphasis role="strong">Go</emphasis> menu in the
641
 
                                                window.</para>
642
 
                                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
643
 
                                                <para>You can also click <emphasis role="strong">Up</emphasis>
644
 
                                                on the navigation toolbar or press the BACKSPACE key to
645
 
                                                move to the parent folder.</para></note>
646
 
                                        </listitem>
647
 
                                        <listitem>
648
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Edit</emphasis>
649
 
                                                menu, click <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis>.
650
 
                                                The <emphasis role="strong">File Management Preferences</emphasis>
651
 
                                                dialogue box opens.</para>
652
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching File Management Preferences</emphasis></title>
653
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
654
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_029.png" format="PNG" />
655
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
656
 
                                                </figure>
657
 
                                        </listitem>
658
 
                                        <listitem>
659
 
                                                <para>Click the <emphasis role="strong">Behaviour</emphasis>
660
 
                                                tab in the dialogue box. To change the mode to spatial mode,
661
 
                                                clear the <emphasis role="strong">Always open in browser
662
 
                                                windows</emphasis> check box and then click
663
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis>.</para>
664
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Changing File Management Behaviour</emphasis></title>
665
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
666
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_030.png" format="PNG" />
667
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
668
 
                                                </figure>
669
 
                                        </listitem>
670
 
                                        <listitem>
671
 
                                                <para>Close the file manager window and open it again. Your
672
 
                                                files will now open in spatial mode. If you open another folder, it
673
 
                                                will open in a different file manager window.</para>
674
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Confirming File Management Behaviour Changes</emphasis></title>
675
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
676
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_031.png" format="PNG" />
677
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
678
 
                                                </figure>
679
 
                                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
680
 
                                                <para>Each time you open a particular folder in spatial mode, you
681
 
                                                will find its window displayed in the same place on the screen
682
 
                                                and of the same size as during the last view. For this reason,
683
 
                                                this mode is referred to as spatial mode.</para></note>
684
 
                                                <para>To move to the parent folder in spatial mode, click
685
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Open Parent</emphasis> on the
686
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">File</emphasis> menu. Alternatively,
687
 
                                                you can press the ALT+UP arrow key.</para>
688
 
                                                <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
689
 
                                                <para>Konqueror is KDE equivalent of Nautilus file manager, 
690
 
                                                which is used in the Kubuntu derivative of Ubuntu. It is a 
691
 
                                                multi-purpose application that can act as a file manager, Web browser 
692
 
                                                and universal viewer. As well as allowing you to browse Web sites, 
693
 
                                                this application provides basic file management and can many view different file types.</para></tip>
694
 
                                        </listitem>
695
 
                                </orderedlist>
696
 
                        </sect2>
697
 
                </sect1>
698
 
                <sect1>
699
 
                        <title>Package Managers</title>
700
 
                        <para>One of the biggest differences between Ubuntu and Microsoft Windows is
701
 
                        how you install and uninstall programmes and applications. In Microsoft Windows, 
702
 
                        most applications provide their own installation and removal methods.
703
 
                        Some applications provide a method to keep themselves up to date, but others
704
 
                        do not and there is no easy way to ensure that everything on your computer is
705
 
                        up to date.  Keeping track of all the programmes that have been installed and 
706
 
                        keeping all those programmes updated is largely up to you.</para>
707
 
                        <para>Ubuntu has a sophisticated <emphasis role="strong">package management framework</emphasis> that keeps
708
 
                        track of all the software installed, automates
709
 
                        the process of installing and removing applications, and ensures that 
710
 
                        all the software is kept up to date with the latest enhancements and fixes.
711
 
                        All you have to do is decide what applications you want installed, and then
712
 
                        use a <emphasis role="strong">package manager</emphasis> to tell Ubuntu to
713
 
                        install them.</para>
714
 
                        <sect2>
715
 
                                <title>Types of Package Managers</title>
716
 
                                <para>Ubuntu includes a few package managers by default and which one you use depends on how advanced the package management
717
 
                                tasks are that you want to achieve. This course covers Add/Remove applications utility and the Synaptic Package Manager. 
718
 
                                </para>
719
 
                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
720
 
                                <para>If you open more than one package manager at the same time,
721
 
                                they may not work. Close all the package managers and open just
722
 
                                one.</para></note>
723
 
                                </sect2>
724
 
                </sect1>
725
 
                <sect1>
726
 
                        <title>Using Add/Remove Applications</title>
727
 
                        <para>The Add/Remove tool is the easiest to use and will enable you to install and uninstall many
728
 
                        popular packages. You can search for the package or packages you want to install
729
 
                        by simply searching a keyword such as 'email' or by looking through the
730
 
                        given categories, selecting applications and choosing "Apply" to start the installation.</para>
731
 
                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
732
 
                        <para>You need administrative access to use any package manager. Type the password for your
733
 
                        user name at the prompt. This means that applications can not be added / removed from your computer
734
 
                        without your knowledge (and password).</para></note>
735
 
                        <para>The procedure to add or remove software by using Add/Remove
736
 
                        Applications is:
737
 
                        <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
738
 
                                <listitem>
739
 
                                        <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Applications</emphasis>
740
 
                                        menu, click <emphasis role="strong">Add/Remove</emphasis>.
741
 
                                        </para>
742
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Add/Remove Applications</emphasis></title>
743
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
744
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_032.png" format="PNG" />
745
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
746
 
                                        </figure>
747
 
                                </listitem>
748
 
                                <listitem>
749
 
                                        <para>The <emphasis role="strong">Add/Remove Applications</emphasis>
750
 
                                        dialogue box displays a list of applications. The
751
 
                                        check boxes against the applications that are already installed are
752
 
                                        pre-selected.</para>
753
 
                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
754
 
                                        <para>Many package names in Ubuntu are quite obscure, so the package manager
755
 
                                        will also look at the package description when searching.</para></note>
756
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Add/Remove Applications Window</emphasis></title>
757
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
758
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_033.png" format="PNG" />
759
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
760
 
                                        </figure>
761
 
                                </listitem>
762
 
                                <listitem>
763
 
                                        <para>If you know the name of the package to be installed, you
764
 
                                        can type the name in the <emphasis role="strong">Search</emphasis>
765
 
                                        box. Otherwise, you can click the appropriate
766
 
                                        software category in the left pane and select the check box next to
767
 
                                        the required package in the right pane.</para>
768
 
                                        <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
769
 
                                        <para>For more details about a package, click the package and view
770
 
                                        the bottom pane.</para></tip>
771
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Searching a Package in All Available Applications</emphasis></title>
772
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
773
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_034.png" format="PNG" />
774
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
775
 
                                        </figure>
776
 
                                </listitem>
777
 
                                <listitem>
778
 
                                        <para>When you have finished selecting the packages to be
779
 
                                        installed or removed, click <emphasis role="strong">Apply Changes</emphasis>
780
 
                                        .</para>
781
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Applying Changes to the Package List</emphasis></title>
782
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
783
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_035.png" format="PNG" />
784
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
785
 
                                        </figure>
786
 
                                </listitem>
787
 
                                <listitem>
788
 
                                        <para>You are prompted to confirm your selection. Click
789
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Apply</emphasis> to proceed.</para>
790
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Confirming Changes</emphasis></title>
791
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
792
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_036.png" format="PNG" />
793
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
794
 
                                        </figure>
795
 
                                </listitem>
796
 
                                <listitem>
797
 
                                        <para>The progress indicator shows the status of the package
798
 
                                        being installed or removed.</para>
799
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Installing Selected Package from Repositories</emphasis></title>
800
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
801
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_037.png" format="PNG" />
802
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
803
 
                                        </figure>
804
 
                                </listitem>
805
 
                                <listitem>
806
 
                                        <para>After the changes are applied
807
 
                                        successfully, the
808
 
                                        package is installed.</para>
809
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Installation Confirmation</emphasis></title>
810
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
811
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_038.png" format="PNG" />
812
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
813
 
                                        </figure>
814
 
                                </listitem>
815
 
                                <listitem>
816
 
                                        <para>Double-click the package to launch it.
817
 
                                        If you want to add or remove more applications, click
818
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Add/Remove More Applications</emphasis> or else 
819
 
                                        click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> in the 
820
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">New application has been installed</emphasis> dialogue box. The following figure shows 
821
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Atomix</emphasis>, which has been installed by
822
 
                                        performing this procedure.</para>
823
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching the Installed Application - Atomix</emphasis></title>
824
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
825
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_039.png" format="PNG" />
826
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
827
 
                                        </figure>
828
 
                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
829
 
                                        <para>After installing a package, you can open it by using a particular
830
 
                                        menu based on its category.</para></note>
831
 
                                </listitem>
832
 
                        </orderedlist>
833
 
                        </para>
834
 
                </sect1>
835
 
                <sect1>
836
 
                        <title>Using Synaptic Package Manager</title>
837
 
                        <para>Add/Remove Applications does not enable you to install and
838
 
                        remove some more advanced packages, such as the Apache web server, the PHP
839
 
                        programming language or Scribe. In such cases, use Synaptic
840
 
                        Package Manager.</para>
841
 
                        <para>You can install, remove, configure or upgrade software packages,
842
 
                        browse, sort and search the list of available software packages, manage
843
 
                        repositories or upgrade the whole system. You can queue up a number
844
 
                        of actions before you execute them. Synaptic informs you about the
845
 
                        additional packages required by the software package you have chosen
846
 
                        as well as conflicts with other packages that are already installed on
847
 
                        your system. In addition, it presents more information such as package
848
 
                        status, origin and filters.</para>
849
 
                        <para>To add and remove packages using Synaptic Packager
850
 
                        Manager:
851
 
                        <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
852
 
                                <listitem>
853
 
                                        <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
854
 
                                        menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Administration</emphasis>
855
 
                                        and then click <emphasis role="strong">Synaptic
856
 
                                        Package Manager</emphasis>.</para>
857
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Synaptic Package Manager</emphasis></title>
858
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
859
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_040.png" format="PNG" />
860
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
861
 
                                        </figure>
862
 
                                </listitem>
863
 
                                <listitem>
864
 
                                        <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Synaptic Package Manager</emphasis>
865
 
                                        dialogue box, you can select the package you need.
866
 
                                        The left pane lists the categories, and the right pane lists the
867
 
                                        packages. If you do not know the name of the package, select the
868
 
                                        category in the left pane to filter the list of packages. You can then
869
 
                                        select the check box next to the required package in the right pane.
870
 
                                        </para>
871
 
                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
872
 
                                        <para>If you want to view the installed and uninstalled
873
 
                                        packages, click <emphasis role="strong">Status</emphasis>.
874
 
                                        To know the source repository of the package, click
875
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Origin</emphasis>. Click
876
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Custom Filters</emphasis> if you
877
 
                                        want to know the whether a package is broken or can be
878
 
                                        upgraded.</para></note>
879
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Synaptic Package Manager Window</emphasis></title>
880
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
881
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_041.png" format="PNG" />
882
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
883
 
                                        </figure>
884
 
                                </listitem>
885
 
                                <listitem>
886
 
                                        <para>If you know the name of the package, click
887
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Search</emphasis>. The
888
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Find</emphasis> dialogue box opens.
889
 
                                        Type the name of the package in the <emphasis role="strong">
890
 
                                        Search</emphasis> field and click <emphasis role="strong">
891
 
                                        Search</emphasis>.</para>
892
 
                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
893
 
                                        <para>To return to the list of categories after searching the packages
894
 
                                        using <emphasis role="strong">Search</emphasis>, click
895
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Sections</emphasis>.</para></note>
896
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Searching a Package to Install </emphasis></title>
897
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
898
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_042.png" format="PNG" />
899
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
900
 
                                        </figure>
901
 
                                </listitem>
902
 
                                <listitem>
903
 
                                        <para>Choose the action to be performed on the selected
904
 
                                        package. Select the <emphasis role="strong">Mark for Installation</emphasis>
905
 
                                        check box to install the package or select the
906
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Mark for Removal</emphasis> check box
907
 
                                        to remove it. If you change your mind, select the
908
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Unmark</emphasis> check box.</para>
909
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Marking the Package for Installation</emphasis></title>
910
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
911
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_043.png" format="PNG" />
912
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
913
 
                                        </figure>
914
 
                                </listitem>
915
 
                                <listitem>
916
 
                                        <para>If the package that you choose to remove or install depends on other packages,
917
 
                                        you will be notified about the dependencies. To continue making changes, click
918
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Mark</emphasis>.</para>
919
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Confirming Additional Changes</emphasis></title>
920
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
921
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_044.png" format="PNG" />
922
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
923
 
                                        </figure>
924
 
                                </listitem>
925
 
                                <listitem>
926
 
                                        <para>To confirm that you want to make the marked changes,
927
 
                                        click <emphasis role="strong">Apply</emphasis>.</para>
928
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Applying Changes to Update Software Information</emphasis></title>
929
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
930
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_045.png" format="PNG" />
931
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
932
 
                                        </figure>
933
 
                                </listitem>
934
 
                                <listitem>
935
 
                                        <para>The <emphasis role="strong">Summary</emphasis>
936
 
                                        dialogue box opens, prompting you for a final check before making
937
 
                                        the marked changes. Click <emphasis role="strong">Apply</emphasis>
938
 
                                        to continue with the changes.</para>
939
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Final Confirmation to Install the Package</emphasis></title>
940
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
941
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_046.png" format="PNG" />
942
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
943
 
                                        </figure>
944
 
                                </listitem>
945
 
                                <listitem>
946
 
                                        <para>When all the marked changes are made, you are notified
947
 
                                        about the changes applied. Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis>
948
 
                                        to close Synaptic Package Manager.</para>
949
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Installation Confirmation</emphasis></title>
950
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
951
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_047.png" format="PNG" />
952
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
953
 
                                        </figure>
954
 
                                        <para>This step completes the procedure of installing packages by
955
 
                                        using Synaptic Package Manager. You can access the installed
956
 
                                        package by selecting a particular menu, depending on the category
957
 
                                        of the package. The following figure shows Abiword, which has been
958
 
                                        installed using this procedure.</para>
959
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching the Installed Application - Abiword</emphasis></title>
960
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
961
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_048.png" format="PNG" />
962
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
963
 
                                        </figure>
964
 
                                </listitem>
965
 
                        </orderedlist>
966
 
                        </para>
967
 
                </sect1>
968
 
                <sect1>
969
 
                        <title>Installing a Single Package File</title>
970
 
                        <para>The preferred method of installing programmes is by using package
971
 
                        managers. If some packages or files are not available, you can download
972
 
                        and install them from Web sites. These files are associated with the
973
 
                        package managers of specific Linux distributions and are referred to as
974
 
                        single package files. Examples are Debian package files-.deb
975
 
                        files and tarballs-.tar files.
976
 
                        </para>
977
 
                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
978
 
                        <para>You should download files that are not present in Ubuntu archives only
979
 
                        from a safe source.</para></note>
980
 
                        <itemizedlist>
981
 
                                <listitem>
982
 
                                        <para>Debian Package files: These files are associated with
983
 
                                        Ubuntu and have the .deb suffix.</para>
984
 
                                </listitem>
985
 
                                <listitem>
986
 
                                        <para>Tarballs: Zipped archive files that contain the source code of
987
 
                                        a programme. This source code needs to be compiled before use.
988
 
                                        Installing programmes by compiling them from source is not covered by this course.</para>
989
 
                                </listitem>
990
 
                        </itemizedlist>
991
 
                        <para>Compiling and installing programmes from source tarballs can can be very complex to debug when things go wrong. 
992
 
                        Tarballs are simple structures which don't specify what dependencies are required
993
 
                        to enable compilation to take place. For this reason it can also be time consuming
994
 
                        and complex to determine the necessary dependencies and either install or compile them
995
 
                        also. Compiling from tarball is therefore not covered on this course.</para>
996
 
                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
997
 
                        <para>It is not guaranteed that the single package files will be compatible with your system. Also, you will not receive
998
 
                         security updates if you install these files. Therefore, wherever possible use a native Ubuntu package of the application
999
 
                         available through a package manager.</para></note>
1000
 
                        <sect2>
1001
 
                                <title>Installing/Uninstalling Debian Packages</title>
1002
 
                                <para>Debian packages are installed and uninstalled using the
1003
 
                                graphical installer (gdebi). gdebi will attempt to install any dependencies
1004
 
                                which are in the Ubuntu repositories, however if the package requires
1005
 
                                further dependencies which are not in the Ubuntu repositories these will also
1006
 
                                need to be installed manually.</para>
1007
 
                                <para>To install a Debian package, open the .deb file from the folder
1008
 
                                in which it resides.</para>
1009
 
                                <para>Installing a Debian package:
1010
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
1011
 
                                        <listitem>
1012
 
                                                <para>Download the package XVidCap
1013
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">xvidcap_1.1.6_i386.deb</emphasis>.
1014
 
                                                As this package is not in the Ubuntu repositories, you will need to 
1015
 
                                                download it from the following website:
1016
 
                                                <ulink url="http://sourceforge.net/projects/xvidcap/">http://sourceforge.net/projects/xvidcap/</ulink></para>
1017
 
                                        </listitem>
1018
 
                                        <listitem>
1019
 
                                                <para>Once downloaded, simply double click the .deb file and the
1020
 
                                                gdebi installer will start. It will check to see if you have all
1021
 
                                                the necessary dependents, and if so will offer an 
1022
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Install</emphasis> button. Simply press
1023
 
                                                the button to start the installation. In the event that dependencies
1024
 
                                                cannot be resolved, an error message will be displayed and you will
1025
 
                                                not be able to install the package until they are fulfilled.</para>
1026
 
                                        </listitem>
1027
 
                                        <listitem>
1028
 
                                                <para>To uninstall the package, simply use the Synaptic Package
1029
 
                                                Manager, as outlined previously in this section.</para>
1030
 
                                        </listitem>
1031
 
                                </orderedlist>
1032
 
                                </para>
1033
 
                        </sect2>
1034
 
                </sect1>
1035
 
                <sect1>
1036
 
                        <title>Software Repositories</title>
1037
 
                        <para>A software repository is a library of software from where you can
1038
 
                        download and install packages (applications) over the Internet. The Ubuntu software
1039
 
                        repository contains tens of thousands of packages that are freely available for
1040
 
                        installation over the Internet. It is easy to install these packages because
1041
 
                        they are specially built for Ubuntu.</para>
1042
 
                        <!-- <instructornote><title>Instructor Notes:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">This section is a recap 
1043
 
                        of section 1. However, it is very critical to understand the concept of software repositories.</emphasis></para>
1044
 
                        </instructornote> -->
1045
 
                        <sect2>
1046
 
                                <title>Software Repository Categories</title>
1047
 
                                <para>Ubuntu repositories are categorised into
1048
 
                                four groups based on the level of support that software development teams
1049
 
                                provide for a programme and the level of compliance the programme has with
1050
 
                                the free software philosophy. <!-- These have already been outlined in lesson 1, but to re-iterate: --></para>
1051
 
                                <itemizedlist>
1052
 
                                        <listitem>
1053
 
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Main</emphasis></para>
1054
 
                                        </listitem>
1055
 
                                        <listitem>
1056
 
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Restricted</emphasis></para>
1057
 
                                        </listitem>
1058
 
                                        <listitem>
1059
 
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Universe</emphasis></para>
1060
 
                                        </listitem>
1061
 
                                        <listitem>
1062
 
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Multiverse</emphasis></para>
1063
 
                                        </listitem>
1064
 
                                </itemizedlist>
1065
 
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">The Main Component</emphasis></para>
1066
 
                                <para>The Main component contains software packages that are free
1067
 
                                and fully supported by the Canonical team. These packages comply
1068
 
                                with the free software philosophy and are available by default while installing Ubuntu. For all
1069
 
                                packages in the Main component, security updates and technical
1070
 
                                support are available free of cost. OpenOffice.org, Abiword and the 
1071
 
                                Apache web server are some of the packages available there.</para>
1072
 
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">The Restricted Component</emphasis></para>
1073
 
                                <para>The Restricted component consists of packages for commonly
1074
 
                                used software that are supported by the Ubuntu team but not available
1075
 
                                under a completely free license. Binary drivers produced by some
1076
 
                                video card vendors are an example of packages available there. Packages in this component are also available on the
1077
 
                                standard Ubuntu installation CD, but they can be easily removed.
1078
 
                                </para>
1079
 
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">The Universe Component</emphasis></para>
1080
 
                                <para>The Universe component includes thousands of packages for software that 
1081
 
                                is not officially supported by Canonical. The software is available under
1082
 
                                a variety of free licenses, taken from a variety of public sources. This component is
1083
 
                                available only through Internet downloading.</para>
1084
 
                                <para>All the packages in this component are expected to work perfectly.
1085
 
                                However, there is no guarantee of security fixes and
1086
 
                                support for these packages. These packages are maintained by the community.</para>
1087
 
                                <instructornote><title>Instructor Notes:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">It could be 
1088
 
                                considered risky to use packages from the Universe component, 
1089
 
                                especially because the lack of guaranteed security updates.</emphasis></para>
1090
 
                                </instructornote>
1091
 
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">The Multiverse Component</emphasis></para>
1092
 
                                <para>The Multiverse component contains packages of non-free
1093
 
                                software, which means that the licensing requirements of the
1094
 
                                software does not meet the license policy of Ubuntu's Main component.
1095
 
                                It is the user's responsibility to verify their rights to use the software
1096
 
                                and comply with the individual licensing terms. Support and security updates are not provided. Examples of these
1097
 
                                packages include VLC and the Adobe Flash plugin.</para>
1098
 
                                <instructornote><title>Instructor Notes:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">
1099
 
                                Software from the Multiverse component could be
1100
 
                                hindered by patents and restriction on usage and distribution.
1101
 
                                It is the user's responsibility to determine if the software can be
1102
 
                                used in its jurisdiction and complies with local laws.</emphasis></para></instructornote>
1103
 
                                <para>Many packages are not available in default Ubuntu
1104
 
                                repositories. These packages can either be installed from other
1105
 
                                Ubuntu repositories or from third-party software. To use the packages
1106
 
                                present in third-party software, you need to add the software. Perform
1107
 
                                the following steps to add the third-party software:
1108
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
1109
 
                                        <listitem>
1110
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
1111
 
                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Administration</emphasis>
1112
 
                                                and then click <emphasis role="strong">Software
1113
 
                                                Sources</emphasis>.</para>
1114
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Software Sources Dialogue Box</emphasis></title>
1115
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1116
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_049.png" format="PNG" />
1117
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1118
 
                                                </figure>
1119
 
                                                <para>The <emphasis role="strong">Software Sources</emphasis>
1120
 
                                                dialogue box opens. The software sources for
1121
 
                                                Ubuntu are selected by default.</para>
1122
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting the Required Sources</emphasis></title>
1123
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1124
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_050.png" format="PNG" />
1125
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1126
 
                                                </figure>
1127
 
                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
1128
 
                                <para>You can also open the <emphasis role="strong">Software Sources</emphasis>
1129
 
                                dialogue box by using the Add/Remove applications or Synaptic Package Manager 
1130
 
                                to enable the repositories under the 
1131
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">Ubuntu Software</emphasis> tab.</para>
1132
 
                                </note>                                 
1133
 
                                        </listitem>
1134
 
                                        <listitem>
1135
 
                                                <para>To add a repository from the third party, click
1136
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">the Third-Party Software</emphasis>
1137
 
                                                tab and then click <emphasis role="strong">Add</emphasis>.
1138
 
                                                </para>
1139
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Adding a Third Party Software Source</emphasis></title>
1140
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1141
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_051.png" format="PNG" />
1142
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1143
 
                                                </figure>
1144
 
                                        </listitem>
1145
 
                                        <listitem>
1146
 
                                                <para>Type the APT line for the repository you want to add as a
1147
 
                                                source. To access the Debian main repositories, type
1148
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">deb
1149
 
                                                <ulink url="http://ftp.debian.orgs">http://ftp.debian.orgs</ulink>
1150
 
                                                sarge main</emphasis> in the
1151
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">APT line</emphasis> box. Click
1152
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Add Source</emphasis>.</para>
1153
 
                                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
1154
 
                                                <para>The APT line should include the type, location and
1155
 
                                                components of a repository.</para></note>
1156
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Stating the Source APT Line</emphasis></title>
1157
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1158
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_052.png" format="PNG" />
1159
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1160
 
                                                </figure>       
1161
 
                                        </listitem>
1162
 
                                        <listitem>
1163
 
                                                <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> to
1164
 
                                                save changes. The repository specified in the APT line is added
1165
 
                                                to the third-party software box.</para>
1166
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Software Sources Dialogue Box Displaying the Added Source</emphasis></title>
1167
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1168
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_053.png" format="PNG" />
1169
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1170
 
                                                </figure>
1171
 
                                        </listitem>
1172
 
                                        <listitem>
1173
 
                                                <para>With the addition of an extra repository, you will be
1174
 
                                                prompted to update information about available software. Click
1175
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Reload</emphasis> to do so.</para>
1176
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Reloading Available Software Information</emphasis></title>
1177
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1178
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_054.png" format="PNG" />
1179
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1180
 
                                                </figure>
1181
 
                                        </listitem>
1182
 
                                        <listitem>
1183
 
                                                <para>The progress indicator shows the status of package being
1184
 
                                                installed or removed.</para>
1185
 
                                                <para>You can authenticate your downloads from the
1186
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Authentication</emphasis> tab in the
1187
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Software Sources</emphasis>
1188
 
                                                dialogue box. When you do not authenticate your downloads,
1189
 
                                                your computer may show the error shown below after
1190
 
                                                downloading the package information. This error can be ignored.
1191
 
                                                To authenticate the downloading process, you need to import
1192
 
                                                the GPG key, which is different for every repository. Click
1193
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> in the dialogue
1194
 
                                                box showing the error. This step will end the process of adding
1195
 
                                                extra repositories and updating package information.</para>
1196
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Public Key Error</emphasis></title>
1197
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1198
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_055.png" format="PNG" />
1199
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1200
 
                                                </figure>
1201
 
                                                </listitem>
1202
 
                                </orderedlist>
1203
 
                                </para>
1204
 
                        <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
1205
 
                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Administration</emphasis>
1206
 
                                                and then click <emphasis role="strong">Software
1207
 
                                                Sources</emphasis>.</para>
1208
 
                                                <para>The <emphasis role="strong">Software Sources</emphasis>
1209
 
                                                dialogue box opens. The software sources for
1210
 
                                                Ubuntu are selected by default.</para>
1211
 
                                                <para>You can also open the <emphasis role="strong">Software Sources</emphasis>
1212
 
                                dialogue box by using the Add/Remove applications or Synaptic Package Manager 
1213
 
                                to enable the repositories under the 
1214
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">Ubuntu Software</emphasis> tab.</para>
1215
 
                                <para>To add a repository from the third party, click
1216
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">the Third-Party Software</emphasis>
1217
 
                                                tab and then click <emphasis role="strong">Add</emphasis>.
1218
 
                                                </para>
1219
 
                                                <para>Type the APT line for the repository you want to add as a
1220
 
                                                source. To access the Debian main repositories, type
1221
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">deb
1222
 
                                                <ulink url="http://ftp.debian.orgs">http://ftp.debian.orgs</ulink>
1223
 
                                                sarge main</emphasis> in the
1224
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">APT line</emphasis> box. Click
1225
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Add Source</emphasis>.</para>
1226
 
                                        </sect2>
1227
 
                        <sect2>
1228
 
                                <title>Adding Repositories</title>
1229
 
                                <para>Many packages are not available in default Ubuntu
1230
 
                                repositories. These packages can either be installed from other
1231
 
                                Ubuntu repositories or from third-party software. To use the packages
1232
 
                                present in third-party software, you need to add the software. Perform
1233
 
                                the following steps to add the third-party software:
1234
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
1235
 
                                        <listitem>
1236
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
1237
 
                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Administration</emphasis>
1238
 
                                                and then click <emphasis role="strong">Software
1239
 
                                                Sources</emphasis>.</para>
1240
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Software Sources Dialogue Box</emphasis></title>
1241
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1242
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_049.png" format="PNG" />
1243
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1244
 
                                                </figure>
1245
 
                                                <para>The <emphasis role="strong">Software Sources</emphasis>
1246
 
                                                dialogue box opens. The software sources for
1247
 
                                                Ubuntu are selected by default.</para>
1248
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting the Required Sources</emphasis></title>
1249
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1250
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_050.png" format="PNG" />
1251
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1252
 
                                                </figure>
1253
 
                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
1254
 
                                <para>You can also open the <emphasis role="strong">Software Sources</emphasis>
1255
 
                                dialogue box by using the Add/Remove applications or Synaptic Package Manager 
1256
 
                                to enable the repositories under the 
1257
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">Ubuntu Software</emphasis> tab.</para>
1258
 
                                </note>                                 
1259
 
                                        </listitem>
1260
 
                                        <listitem>
1261
 
                                                <para>To add a repository from the third party, click
1262
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">the Third-Party Software</emphasis>
1263
 
                                                tab and then click <emphasis role="strong">Add</emphasis>.
1264
 
                                                </para>
1265
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Adding a Third Party Software Source</emphasis></title>
1266
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1267
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_051.png" format="PNG" />
1268
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1269
 
                                                </figure>
1270
 
                                        </listitem>
1271
 
                                        <listitem>
1272
 
                                                <para>Type the APT line for the repository you want to add as a
1273
 
                                                source. To access the Debian main repositories, type
1274
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">deb
1275
 
                                                <ulink url="http://ftp.debian.orgs">http://ftp.debian.orgs</ulink>
1276
 
                                                sarge main</emphasis> in the
1277
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">APT line</emphasis> box. Click
1278
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Add Source</emphasis>.</para>
1279
 
                                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
1280
 
                                                <para>The APT line should include the type, location and
1281
 
                                                components of a repository.</para></note>
1282
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Stating the Source APT Line</emphasis></title>
1283
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1284
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_052.png" format="PNG" />
1285
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1286
 
                                                </figure>       
1287
 
                                        </listitem>
1288
 
                                        <listitem>
1289
 
                                                <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> to
1290
 
                                                save changes. The repository specified in the APT line is added
1291
 
                                                to the third-party software box.</para>
1292
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Software Sources Dialogue Box Displaying the Added Source</emphasis></title>
1293
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1294
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_053.png" format="PNG" />
1295
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1296
 
                                                </figure>
1297
 
                                        </listitem>
1298
 
                                        <listitem>
1299
 
                                                <para>With the addition of an extra repository, you will be
1300
 
                                                prompted to update information about available software. Click
1301
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Reload</emphasis> to do so.</para>
1302
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Reloading Available Software Information</emphasis></title>
1303
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1304
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_054.png" format="PNG" />
1305
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1306
 
                                                </figure>
1307
 
                                        </listitem>
1308
 
                                        <listitem>
1309
 
                                                <para>The progress indicator shows the status of package being
1310
 
                                                installed or removed.</para>
1311
 
                                                <para>You can authenticate your downloads from the
1312
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Authentication</emphasis> tab in the
1313
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Software Sources</emphasis>
1314
 
                                                dialogue box. When you do not authenticate your downloads,
1315
 
                                                your computer may show the error shown below after
1316
 
                                                downloading the package information. This error can be ignored.
1317
 
                                                To authenticate the downloading process, you need to import
1318
 
                                                the GPG key, which is different for every repository. Click
1319
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> in the dialogue
1320
 
                                                box showing the error. This step will end the process of adding
1321
 
                                                extra repositories and updating package information.</para>
1322
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Public Key Error</emphasis></title>
1323
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1324
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_055.png" format="PNG" />
1325
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1326
 
                                                </figure>
1327
 
                                                </listitem>
1328
 
                                </orderedlist>
1329
 
                                </para>
1330
 
                        </sect2>
1331
 
                </sect1>
1332
 
                <sect1>
1333
 
                        <title>Adding New Language Settings</title>
1334
 
                        <para>Ubuntu provides the option to enable numerous language settings for your desktop.</para>
1335
 
                        <para>Support for new languages can be installed via <emphasis role="strong">Language Support</emphasis>, which 
1336
 
                        is found in the <emphasis role="strong">Administration/System</emphasis> menu. Depending on the language, the input method and keyboard mapping may need to be changed as well. 
1337
 
                        The <emphasis>Smart Common Input Method</emphasis> (SCIM) is used in Ubuntu to switch between different input methods 
1338
 
                        for complex characters in many non-Latin languages. The <emphasis>ctrl space</emphasis> hotkey is a convenient switch between different input methods.</para>
1339
 
                </sect1>
1340
 
                <sect1>
1341
 
                        <title>Lesson Summary</title>
1342
 
                        <para>In this lesson, you learned that:
1343
 
                        <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
1344
 
                                <listitem>
1345
 
                                        <para>GNOME is the default desktop for Ubuntu. You can use the <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis>
1346
 
                                        option on the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
1347
 
                                        menu to customise the Ubuntu desktop look and feel.</para>
1348
 
                                </listitem>
1349
 
                                <listitem>
1350
 
                                        <para>You can manage your file system using the Nautilus file
1351
 
                                        manager. Use the spatial mode to open each folder in a separate
1352
 
                                        window and view the content of various folders simultaneously. Use
1353
 
                                        the browser mode to open folders in a single window.</para>
1354
 
                                </listitem>
1355
 
                                <listitem>
1356
 
                                        <para>Add/Remove Applications is the easiest tool to install or
1357
 
                                        uninstall packages.</para>
1358
 
                                </listitem>
1359
 
                                <listitem>
1360
 
                                        <para>You can use Synaptic Package Manager to install or
1361
 
                                        uninstall advanced applications that cannot be installed using
1362
 
                                        Add/Remove.</para>
1363
 
                                </listitem>
1364
 
                                        <listitem>
1365
 
                                        <para>To install a package that is not available in the Ubuntu
1366
 
                                        archives, you can download and install it from Web sites. These
1367
 
                                        files are associated with the package managers of specific Linux
1368
 
                                        distribution and are referred to as single package files.</para>
1369
 
                                </listitem>
1370
 
                                <listitem>
1371
 
                                        <para>Tarballs are zipped archive files that contain the source
1372
 
                                        code of a programme. You can use advanced command line tools to install or
1373
 
                                        uninstall the tarball file.</para>
1374
 
                                </listitem>
1375
 
                          </orderedlist>
1376
 
                        </para>
1377
 
                </sect1>
1378
 
                    <questions>
1379
 
                <sect1>
1380
 
                        <title>Review Exercise</title>
1381
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 1</emphasis></para>
1382
 
                        <para>What is the default desktop for Ubuntu?</para>
1383
 
                        <answer>
1384
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 1</emphasis></para>
1385
 
                        <para>GNOME is the default desktop for Ubuntu.</para>
1386
 
                        </answer>
1387
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 2</emphasis></para>
1388
 
                        <para>From which Web site can you download additional Ubuntu
1389
 
                        wallpapers and themes?</para>
1390
 
                        <answer>
1391
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 2</emphasis></para>
1392
 
                        <para>You can download additional wallpapers and themes from the
1393
 
                        Web site <ulink url="http://art.gnome.org/">http://art.gnome.org/</ulink>.
1394
 
                        </para>
1395
 
                        </answer>
1396
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 3</emphasis></para>
1397
 
                        <para>Mention any three features of the Nautilus file manager.</para>
1398
 
                        <answer>
1399
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 3</emphasis></para>
1400
 
                        <para>Three features of the Nautilus file manager are:</para>
1401
 
                        <itemizedlist>
1402
 
                                <listitem>
1403
 
                                        <para>Creating and displaying folders and documents</para>
1404
 
                                </listitem>
1405
 
                                <listitem>
1406
 
                                        <para>Searching and managing files</para>
1407
 
                                </listitem>
1408
 
                                <listitem>
1409
 
                                        <para>Navigating using two modes, browser and spatial</para>
1410
 
                                </listitem>
1411
 
                        </itemizedlist>
1412
 
                        </answer>
1413
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 4</emphasis></para>
1414
 
                        <para>Which is the file manager for the KDE environment?</para>
1415
 
                        <answer>
1416
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 4</emphasis></para>
1417
 
                        <para>Konqueror is the file manager of the KDE environment.</para>
1418
 
                        </answer>
1419
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 5</emphasis></para>
1420
 
                        <para>What is a package manager?</para>
1421
 
                        <answer>
1422
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 5</emphasis></para>
1423
 
                        <para>A package manager is a programme that helps add or remove
1424
 
                        packages in Ubuntu.</para>
1425
 
                        </answer>
1426
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 6</emphasis></para>
1427
 
                        <para>Differentiate between a graphical package manager and a
1428
 
                        command line package manager. Provide examples of each.</para>
1429
 
                        <answer>
1430
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 6</emphasis></para>
1431
 
                        <para>To add and remove packages, a graphical package manager uses
1432
 
                        the graphical interface while a command line package manager uses the
1433
 
                        command line interface.</para>
1434
 
                        <para>Add/Remove Applications is a graphical package manager and
1435
 
                        apt-get is a command line package manager.</para>
1436
 
                        </answer>
1437
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 7</emphasis></para>
1438
 
                        <para>Software that is not licensed under Ubuntu's main component
1439
 
                        licensing policy is referred to as _______________.</para>
1440
 
                        <answer>
1441
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 7</emphasis></para>
1442
 
                        <para>Software that is not licensed under Ubuntu's main component
1443
 
                        licensing policy is referred to as non-free software.</para>
1444
 
                        </answer>
1445
 
                </sect1>
1446
 
                    </questions>
1447
 
                <sect1>
1448
 
                        <title>Lab Exercise</title>
1449
 
                        <instructornote><title>Instructor Notes:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">Explain to 
1450
 
                        the students the purpose of each application. xpdf is a suite of tools used to view Portable Document Format (pdf).
1451
 
                        This package supports standard X fonts, true type fonts and type1 fonts. Gnumeric
1452
 
                        is a stand-alone spreadsheet application that interoperates well with
1453
 
                        other spreadsheets.</emphasis></para>
1454
 
                        </instructornote>
1455
 
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Exercise 1</emphasis></para>
1456
 
                        <para>You have installed Ubuntu 7.10 on your personal computer. You
1457
 
                        want to view your pdf files, use a spreadsheet application for creating your daily tasks and archive your files. 
1458
 
                        Install the following packages:</para>
1459
 
                        <para>a) xpdf</para>
1460
 
                        <para>b) gnumeric</para>
1461
 
                        <para>a) Installing xpdf using Add/Remove Applications:
1462
 
                        <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
1463
 
                                <listitem>
1464
 
                                        <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Application</emphasis>
1465
 
                                        menu, click <emphasis role="strong">Add/Remove</emphasis>.
1466
 
                                        The <emphasis role="strong">Add/Remove</emphasis> dialogue
1467
 
                                        box opens.</para>
1468
 
                                </listitem>
1469
 
                                <listitem>
1470
 
                                        <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Search</emphasis> box,
1471
 
                                        type <emphasis role="strong">xpdf</emphasis>.</para>
1472
 
                                </listitem>
1473
 
                                <listitem>
1474
 
                                        <para>Select the check box next to
1475
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">xpdf</emphasis>.</para>
1476
 
                                </listitem>
1477
 
                                <listitem>
1478
 
                                        <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Apply Changes</emphasis>.</para>
1479
 
                                </listitem>
1480
 
                                <listitem>
1481
 
                                        <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Apply</emphasis> to make the changes.
1482
 
                                        </para>
1483
 
                                </listitem>
1484
 
                                <listitem>
1485
 
                                        <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">New application has been installed</emphasis>
1486
 
                                        dialogue box, click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis>.</para>
1487
 
                                </listitem>
1488
 
                        </orderedlist>
1489
 
                        </para>
1490
 
                        <para>b) Installing gnumeric from Synaptic:
1491
 
                        <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
1492
 
                                <listitem>
1493
 
                                        <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
1494
 
                                        menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Administration</emphasis>
1495
 
                                        and then click <emphasis role="strong">Synaptic
1496
 
                                        Package Manager</emphasis>. The <emphasis role="strong">
1497
 
                                        Synaptic Package Manager</emphasis> dialogue box opens.
1498
 
                                        </para>
1499
 
                                </listitem>
1500
 
                                <listitem>
1501
 
                                        <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Search</emphasis> to find
1502
 
                                        gnumeric and select the <emphasis role="strong">gnumeric</emphasis>
1503
 
                                        check box.</para>
1504
 
                                </listitem>
1505
 
                                <listitem>
1506
 
                                        <para>Select the <emphasis role="strong">Mark for Installation</emphasis>
1507
 
                                        check box. A dialogue box displaying the
1508
 
                                        dependencies of this package on other packages opens.</para>
1509
 
                                </listitem>
1510
 
                                <listitem>
1511
 
                                        <para>To continue making the required changes, click
1512
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Mark</emphasis>.</para>
1513
 
                                </listitem>
1514
 
                                <listitem>
1515
 
                                        <para>To confirm making the marked changes, click
1516
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Apply</emphasis>. The
1517
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Summary</emphasis> dialogue box
1518
 
                                        opens, prompting you for a final check before making the marked
1519
 
                                        changes.</para>
1520
 
                                </listitem>
1521
 
                                <listitem>
1522
 
                                        <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Apply</emphasis> to
1523
 
                                        continue with the changes.</para>
1524
 
                                </listitem>
1525
 
                                <listitem>
1526
 
                                        <para>When all the marked changes are made, you are notified of
1527
 
                                        the changes applied. Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis>.</para>
1528
 
                                </listitem>
1529
 
                        </orderedlist>
1530
 
                        </para>
1531
 
                        </sect1>
1532
 
</chapter>
1533
 
 
 
5
  <title>Customising the Desktop and Applications</title>
 
6
 
 
7
  <formalpara>
 
8
    <title>Objectives</title>
 
9
 
 
10
    <para>In this lesson, you will learn how to:</para>
 
11
  </formalpara>
 
12
 
 
13
  <itemizedlist>
 
14
    <listitem>
 
15
      <para>Customise the look and feel of the Ubuntu desktop</para>
 
16
    </listitem>
 
17
 
 
18
    <listitem>
 
19
      <para>Work with the Nautilus file manager</para>
 
20
    </listitem>
 
21
 
 
22
    <listitem>
 
23
      <para>Add and remove applications</para>
 
24
    </listitem>
 
25
 
 
26
    <listitem>
 
27
      <para>Identify the types of single package files and their use</para>
 
28
    </listitem>
 
29
 
 
30
    <listitem>
 
31
      <para>Install and uninstall Debian packages</para>
 
32
    </listitem>
 
33
 
 
34
    <listitem>
 
35
      <para>Identify the categories of software repositories</para>
 
36
    </listitem>
 
37
 
 
38
    <listitem>
 
39
      <para>Add extra repositories</para>
 
40
    </listitem>
 
41
  </itemizedlist>
 
42
 
 
43
  <sect1>
 
44
    <title>Introduction</title>
 
45
 
 
46
    <para>The Ubuntu desktop comes completely clean and free of pre-determined
 
47
    icons and buttons. Customising your desktop allows you to add icons to
 
48
    suit your work style.</para>
 
49
 
 
50
    <para>In this lesson, you will learn about various ways to set up your
 
51
    Ubuntu desktop to suit your requirements. You will also learn how to
 
52
    install and uninstall various software applications.</para>
 
53
  </sect1>
 
54
 
 
55
  <sect1>
 
56
    <title>Customising the Desktop</title>
 
57
 
 
58
    <para>Ubuntu and its derivatives can be customised through a Graphical
 
59
    User Interface or a Command Line Interface.</para>
 
60
 
 
61
    <para>The graphical tools to customize the desktop are available as menu
 
62
    options in the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> menu. Point to
 
63
    <emphasis role="strong">Preference s</emphasis> on the <emphasis
 
64
    role="strong">System menu</emphasis> to view the tools.</para>
 
65
 
 
66
    <note>
 
67
      <title>Note:</title>
 
68
 
 
69
      <para>The System - Preferences menu enables users to customise their own
 
70
      desktop environment but not that of other users on the same computer. In
 
71
      contrast, applications on the System - Administration menu will make
 
72
      changes to the computer that will affect all users.</para>
 
73
    </note>
 
74
 
 
75
    <sect2>
 
76
      <title>Changing the Background</title>
 
77
 
 
78
      <para>The desktop background is the image or colour applied to your
 
79
      desktop.</para>
 
80
 
 
81
      <procedure>
 
82
        <title>To change the default Ubuntu background select:</title>
 
83
 
 
84
        <step performance="required">
 
85
          <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System </emphasis> menu, point
 
86
          to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis> and then click
 
87
          <emphasis role="strong">Appearance</emphasis>. The <emphasis
 
88
          role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box
 
89
          opens.</para>
 
90
 
 
91
          <figure float="0">
 
92
            <title>Launching Appearance Preferences Dialogue Box</title>
 
93
 
 
94
            <mediaobject>
 
95
              <imageobject>
 
96
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_001.png"
 
97
                           format="PNG" width="10.5cm" />
 
98
              </imageobject>
 
99
            </mediaobject>
 
100
          </figure>
 
101
 
 
102
          <tip>
 
103
            <title>Nice to Know:</title>
 
104
 
 
105
            <para>You can also right-click the desktop and select <emphasis
 
106
            role="strong">Change Desktop Background</emphasis> to open the
 
107
            <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis> dialogue
 
108
            box.</para>
 
109
          </tip>
 
110
        </step>
 
111
 
 
112
        <step performance="required">
 
113
          <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance
 
114
          Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box, select a desktop wallpaper from
 
115
          the available wallpapers. The background changes immediately.</para>
 
116
 
 
117
          <figure float="0">
 
118
            <title>Changing the Desktop Wallpaper</title>
 
119
 
 
120
            <mediaobject>
 
121
              <imageobject>
 
122
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_002.png"
 
123
                           format="PNG" vendor="" width="10.5cm" />
 
124
              </imageobject>
 
125
            </mediaobject>
 
126
          </figure>
 
127
 
 
128
          <tip>
 
129
            <title>Nice to Know:</title>
 
130
 
 
131
            <para>To view the name of the wallpaper, move the pointer over its
 
132
            name.</para>
 
133
          </tip>
 
134
        </step>
 
135
 
 
136
        <step performance="required">
 
137
          <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> in the
 
138
          <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis> dialogue
 
139
          box to apply the changes.</para>
 
140
 
 
141
          <figure float="0">
 
142
            <title>Applying Preference Change</title>
 
143
 
 
144
            <mediaobject>
 
145
              <imageobject>
 
146
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_003.png"
 
147
                           format="PNG" width="11cm" />
 
148
              </imageobject>
 
149
            </mediaobject>
 
150
          </figure>
 
151
        </step>
 
152
      </procedure>
 
153
 
 
154
      <procedure>
 
155
        <title>Adding a New Wallpaper</title>
 
156
 
 
157
        <para>In addition to the wallpapers available with Ubuntu, you can
 
158
        download wallpapers from other sources and add them to the available
 
159
        wallpapers list in the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance
 
160
        Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box. To do this:</para>
 
161
 
 
162
        <step performance="required">
 
163
          <para>Open the Web site <ulink
 
164
          url="http://art.gnome.org/">http://art.gnome.org/</ulink> and click
 
165
          <emphasis role="strong">Backgrounds</emphasis>.</para>
 
166
 
 
167
          <figure float="0">
 
168
            <title><emphasis role="italic">Opening Wallpaper
 
169
            Source</emphasis></title>
 
170
 
 
171
            <mediaobject>
 
172
              <imageobject>
 
173
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_004.png"
 
174
                           format="PNG" width="11cm" />
 
175
              </imageobject>
 
176
            </mediaobject>
 
177
          </figure>
 
178
        </step>
 
179
 
 
180
        <step performance="required">
 
181
          <para>Download the wallpaper of your choice. During the download,
 
182
          you can view the screen resolutions available for the selected
 
183
          wallpaper. You should download and save the version of your chosen
 
184
          wallpaper that matches the screen resolution of your
 
185
          computer.</para>
 
186
        </step>
 
187
 
 
188
        <step performance="required">
 
189
          <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> menu, point
 
190
          to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis> and then click
 
191
          <emphasis role="strong">Appearance</emphasis>. The <emphasis
 
192
          role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box
 
193
          opens.</para>
 
194
        </step>
 
195
 
 
196
        <step performance="required">
 
197
          <para>Click the <emphasis role="strong">Background</emphasis> tab
 
198
          and then click <emphasis role="strong">Add</emphasis>. The <emphasis
 
199
          role="strong">Add Wallpaper</emphasis> dialogue box opens.</para>
 
200
 
 
201
          <figure float="0">
 
202
            <title><emphasis role="italic">Adding a New
 
203
            Wallpaper</emphasis></title>
 
204
 
 
205
            <mediaobject>
 
206
              <imageobject>
 
207
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_005.png"
 
208
                           format="PNG" width="8cm" />
 
209
              </imageobject>
 
210
            </mediaobject>
 
211
          </figure>
 
212
        </step>
 
213
 
 
214
        <step performance="required">
 
215
          <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Add Wallpaper</emphasis>
 
216
          dialogue box, select the downloaded image and click <emphasis
 
217
          role="strong">Open</emphasis>.</para>
 
218
 
 
219
          <figure float="0">
 
220
            <title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting Downloaded
 
221
            Wallpaper</emphasis></title>
 
222
 
 
223
            <mediaobject>
 
224
              <imageobject>
 
225
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_006.png"
 
226
                           format="PNG" width="8cm" />
 
227
              </imageobject>
 
228
            </mediaobject>
 
229
          </figure>
 
230
 
 
231
          <para>This step adds the image as new wallpaper.</para>
 
232
        </step>
 
233
 
 
234
        <step performance="required">
 
235
          <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> in the
 
236
          <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis> dialogue
 
237
          box to accept the changes. You can now view the new desktop
 
238
          background.</para>
 
239
 
 
240
          <figure float="0">
 
241
            <title><emphasis role="italic">Added Wallpaper</emphasis></title>
 
242
 
 
243
            <mediaobject>
 
244
              <imageobject>
 
245
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_007.png"
 
246
                           format="PNG" width="12cm" />
 
247
              </imageobject>
 
248
            </mediaobject>
 
249
          </figure>
 
250
        </step>
 
251
      </procedure>
 
252
 
 
253
      <tip>
 
254
        <title>Nice to know:</title>
 
255
 
 
256
        <para>You can, of course, use a picture from any other source to use
 
257
        as your desktop background. Many popular online photo collaboration
 
258
        sites allow visitors to download and use their content for personal
 
259
        use. Many people also use their own digital photographs as
 
260
        backgrounds.</para>
 
261
      </tip>
 
262
 
 
263
      <procedure>
 
264
        <title>Changing the Colour of the Background</title>
 
265
 
 
266
        <para>To change the colour of the background:</para>
 
267
 
 
268
        <step performance="required">
 
269
          <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> menu, point
 
270
          to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis> and then click
 
271
          <emphasis role="strong">Appearance</emphasis> to open the <emphasis
 
272
          role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box.</para>
 
273
        </step>
 
274
 
 
275
        <step performance="required">
 
276
          <para>Click the <emphasis role="strong">Background</emphasis> tab
 
277
          and select the wallpaper <emphasis role="strong">No
 
278
          Wallpaper</emphasis>. You can only view colours if you have not set
 
279
          any desktop wallpaper.</para>
 
280
 
 
281
          <figure float="0">
 
282
            <title><emphasis role="italic">Changing Background
 
283
            Colour</emphasis></title>
 
284
 
 
285
            <mediaobject>
 
286
              <imageobject>
 
287
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_008.png"
 
288
                           format="PNG" width="8cm" />
 
289
              </imageobject>
 
290
            </mediaobject>
 
291
          </figure>
 
292
        </step>
 
293
 
 
294
        <step performance="required">
 
295
          <para>The <emphasis role="strong">Colours</emphasis> box provides
 
296
          three types of background: <emphasis role="strong">Solid colour,
 
297
          Horizontal gradient</emphasis> and <emphasis role="strong">Vertical
 
298
          gradient</emphasis>. Select the desktop colour of your choice and
 
299
          then click the colour chip next to the <emphasis
 
300
          role="strong">Colours</emphasis> box. The <emphasis
 
301
          role="strong">Pick a Colour</emphasis> dialogue box opens.</para>
 
302
 
 
303
          <figure float="0">
 
304
            <title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting a colour
 
305
            Option</emphasis></title>
 
306
 
 
307
            <mediaobject>
 
308
              <imageobject>
 
309
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_009.png"
 
310
                           format="PNG" width="8cm" />
 
311
              </imageobject>
 
312
            </mediaobject>
 
313
          </figure>
 
314
        </step>
 
315
 
 
316
        <step performance="required">
 
317
          <para>Select a colour or the attributes of a colour such as hue and
 
318
          saturation to create a colour of your choice. Click <emphasis
 
319
          role="strong">OK</emphasis>. The desktop reflects the new settings
 
320
          immediately.</para>
 
321
 
 
322
          <figure float="0">
 
323
            <title><emphasis role="italic">Specifying
 
324
            Colour</emphasis></title>
 
325
 
 
326
            <mediaobject>
 
327
              <imageobject>
 
328
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_010.png"
 
329
                           format="PNG" width="7cm" />
 
330
              </imageobject>
 
331
            </mediaobject>
 
332
          </figure>
 
333
        </step>
 
334
 
 
335
        <step performance="required">
 
336
          <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> to close the
 
337
          <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis> dialogue
 
338
          box.</para>
 
339
 
 
340
          <figure float="0">
 
341
            <title><emphasis role="italic">Changed Background
 
342
            Colour</emphasis></title>
 
343
 
 
344
            <mediaobject>
 
345
              <imageobject>
 
346
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_011.png"
 
347
                           format="PNG" width="11cm" />
 
348
              </imageobject>
 
349
            </mediaobject>
 
350
          </figure>
 
351
        </step>
 
352
      </procedure>
 
353
    </sect2>
 
354
 
 
355
    <sect2>
 
356
      <title>Customising the Theme (Buttons &amp; icons etc)</title>
 
357
 
 
358
      <para>The desktop theme controls the visual appearance of the buttons,
 
359
      scroll bars, icons, panels, borders etc. A number of themes are provided
 
360
      with Ubuntu.</para>
 
361
 
 
362
      <procedure>
 
363
        <title>To select a theme for your desktop:</title>
 
364
 
 
365
        <step performance="required">
 
366
          <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> menu, point
 
367
          to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis> and click
 
368
          <emphasis role="strong">Appearance</emphasis>. The <emphasis
 
369
          role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box
 
370
          opens.</para>
 
371
        </step>
 
372
 
 
373
        <step performance="required">
 
374
          <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Theme</emphasis> tab, select
 
375
          the theme of your choice. The desktop reflects the theme
 
376
          automatically. To customise your theme further, click <emphasis
 
377
          role="strong">Customise</emphasis>. The <emphasis
 
378
          role="strong">Customise Theme</emphasis> dialogue box opens.</para>
 
379
 
 
380
          <figure float="0">
 
381
            <title>Customising Desktop Theme</title>
 
382
 
 
383
            <mediaobject>
 
384
              <imageobject>
 
385
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_012.png"
 
386
                           format="PNG" width="8cm" />
 
387
              </imageobject>
 
388
            </mediaobject>
 
389
          </figure>
 
390
        </step>
 
391
 
 
392
        <step performance="required">
 
393
          <para>The default selection is <emphasis
 
394
          role="strong">Controls</emphasis> tab. The setting on the <emphasis
 
395
          role="strong">Controls</emphasis> tabbed page defines the visual
 
396
          appearance of windows, panels and applets. Select a control from the
 
397
          <emphasis role="strong">Controls</emphasis> list. You will see an
 
398
          immediate change in the appearance of the open windows.</para>
 
399
 
 
400
          <note>
 
401
            <title>Note:</title>
 
402
 
 
403
            <para>You can customise the following objects on the
 
404
            screen:</para>
 
405
 
 
406
            <formalpara>
 
407
              <title>Window:</title>
 
408
 
 
409
              <para>A rectangular area of the screen with a border and a title
 
410
              bar at the top. All graphical applications run inside
 
411
              windows.</para>
 
412
            </formalpara>
 
413
 
 
414
            <formalpara>
 
415
              <title>Panel:</title>
 
416
 
 
417
              <para>An area on the desktop from where you can access
 
418
              information such as date and time. You can also launch
 
419
              applications and add or remove objects from panels. The Ubuntu
 
420
              desktop contains two panels, the top edge panel at the top of
 
421
              the screen and the bottom edge panel at the bottom of the
 
422
              screen.</para>
 
423
            </formalpara>
 
424
 
 
425
            <formalpara>
 
426
              <title>Applet:</title>
 
427
 
 
428
              <para>A small application whose user interface resides within a
 
429
              panel.</para>
 
430
            </formalpara>
 
431
 
 
432
            <formalpara>
 
433
              <title>Window Border:</title>
 
434
 
 
435
              <para>The border that appears around windows. It has a frame at
 
436
              the top of the window that contains the name of the application
 
437
              and the edges that allow you to resize the window.</para>
 
438
            </formalpara>
 
439
 
 
440
            <formalpara>
 
441
              <title>Icon:</title>
 
442
 
 
443
              <para>A graphical symbol for the applications and options on the
 
444
              panels and windows.</para>
 
445
            </formalpara>
 
446
          </note>
 
447
 
 
448
          <para>Similarly, you can customise the background and text colour of
 
449
          your windows, input boxes and selected items by configuring the
 
450
          settings on the <emphasis role="strong">Colours</emphasis>
 
451
          tab.</para>
 
452
 
 
453
          <para>If you want to customise your window borders and icons, click
 
454
          the <emphasis role="strong">Window Border</emphasis> and <emphasis
 
455
          role="strong">Icons</emphasis> tabs in the <emphasis
 
456
          role="strong">Customise Theme</emphasis> dialogue box.</para>
 
457
 
 
458
          <note>
 
459
            <title>Note:</title>
 
460
 
 
461
            <para>Ubuntu provides additional options to customise your themes.
 
462
            You can download more controls, window borders and icons from the
 
463
            Web site <ulink
 
464
            url="http://art.gnome.org">http://art.gnome.org</ulink> and save
 
465
            it at any location on your computer. While customising the theme,
 
466
            click <emphasis role="strong">Install</emphasis> in the <emphasis
 
467
            role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box. The
 
468
            <emphasis role="strong">Select Theme</emphasis> dialogue box
 
469
            opens, and you can select the downloaded objects.</para>
 
470
          </note>
 
471
 
 
472
          <figure float="0">
 
473
            <title>Selecting Theme Controls</title>
 
474
 
 
475
            <mediaobject>
 
476
              <imageobject>
 
477
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_013.png"
 
478
                           format="PNG" width="5cm" />
 
479
              </imageobject>
 
480
            </mediaobject>
 
481
          </figure>
 
482
        </step>
 
483
 
 
484
        <step performance="required">
 
485
          <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> in the
 
486
          <emphasis role="strong">Customise Theme</emphasis> dialogue box. To
 
487
          save the theme, click <emphasis role="strong">Save As</emphasis> in
 
488
          the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis>
 
489
          dialogue box. The <emphasis role="strong">Save Theme As</emphasis>
 
490
          dialogue box opens.</para>
 
491
 
 
492
          <figure float="0">
 
493
            <title>Saving a Modified Theme</title>
 
494
 
 
495
            <mediaobject>
 
496
              <imageobject>
 
497
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_014.png"
 
498
                           format="PNG" width="8cm" />
 
499
              </imageobject>
 
500
            </mediaobject>
 
501
          </figure>
 
502
        </step>
 
503
 
 
504
        <step performance="required">
 
505
          <para>Provide a name for the theme in the <emphasis
 
506
          role="strong">Name </emphasis> box and a description, if you want,
 
507
          in the <emphasis role="strong">Description </emphasis> box. Click
 
508
          <emphasis role="strong">Save</emphasis>.</para>
 
509
 
 
510
          <figure float="0">
 
511
            <title>Specifying Theme Name and Description</title>
 
512
 
 
513
            <mediaobject>
 
514
              <imageobject>
 
515
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_015.png"
 
516
                           format="PNG" width="6cm" />
 
517
              </imageobject>
 
518
            </mediaobject>
 
519
          </figure>
 
520
        </step>
 
521
 
 
522
        <step performance="required">
 
523
          <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance
 
524
          Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box, click <emphasis
 
525
          role="strong">Close</emphasis>.</para>
 
526
        </step>
 
527
      </procedure>
 
528
 
 
529
      <para>If you open a menu or window, you can see the changes in their
 
530
      appearance.</para>
 
531
 
 
532
      <figure float="0">
 
533
        <title>Viewing an Application in a Modified Theme</title>
 
534
 
 
535
        <mediaobject>
 
536
          <imageobject>
 
537
            <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_016.png" format="PNG"
 
538
                       width="6cm" />
 
539
          </imageobject>
 
540
        </mediaobject>
 
541
      </figure>
 
542
 
 
543
      <procedure>
 
544
        <title>Installing New Themes</title>
 
545
 
 
546
        <para>You can also download other Ubuntu-compatible themes from
 
547
        Ubuntu's recommended source. To install these themes:</para>
 
548
 
 
549
        <step performance="required">
 
550
          <para>Open the Web site(<ulink
 
551
          url="http://art.gnome.org/">http://art.gnome.org/</ulink>) and click
 
552
          <emphasis role="strong">DesktopThemes</emphasis>.</para>
 
553
 
 
554
          <figure float="0">
 
555
            <title><emphasis role="italic">Opening Theme
 
556
            Source</emphasis></title>
 
557
 
 
558
            <mediaobject>
 
559
              <imageobject>
 
560
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_017.png"
 
561
                           format="PNG" width="11cm" />
 
562
              </imageobject>
 
563
            </mediaobject>
 
564
          </figure>
 
565
        </step>
 
566
 
 
567
        <step performance="required">
 
568
          <para>Download a theme of your choice. Select any theme and follow
 
569
          the instructions as they appear.</para>
 
570
        </step>
 
571
 
 
572
        <step performance="required">
 
573
          <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> menu, point
 
574
          to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences </emphasis> and click
 
575
          <emphasis role="strong">Appearance</emphasis>. The <emphasis
 
576
          role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box
 
577
          opens.</para>
 
578
        </step>
 
579
 
 
580
        <step performance="required">
 
581
          <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Theme</emphasis> tab, click
 
582
          <emphasis role="strong">Install</emphasis>. The <emphasis
 
583
          role="strong">Select Theme</emphasis> dialogue box opens.</para>
 
584
 
 
585
          <figure float="0">
 
586
            <title><emphasis role="italic">Installing a New
 
587
            Theme</emphasis></title>
 
588
 
 
589
            <mediaobject>
 
590
              <imageobject>
 
591
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_018.png"
 
592
                           format="PNG" width="8cm" />
 
593
              </imageobject>
 
594
            </mediaobject>
 
595
          </figure>
 
596
        </step>
 
597
 
 
598
        <step performance="required">
 
599
          <para>Select the downloaded theme and click <emphasis
 
600
          role="strong">Open</emphasis>.</para>
 
601
 
 
602
          <figure float="0">
 
603
            <title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting the Downloaded
 
604
            Theme</emphasis></title>
 
605
 
 
606
            <mediaobject>
 
607
              <imageobject>
 
608
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_019.png"
 
609
                           format="PNG" width="8cm" />
 
610
              </imageobject>
 
611
            </mediaobject>
 
612
          </figure>
 
613
        </step>
 
614
 
 
615
        <step performance="required">
 
616
          <para>You can apply a new theme or retain the current theme. Click
 
617
          <emphasis role="strong">Apply New Theme</emphasis> to apply the new
 
618
          theme. The screen will reflect the new theme immediately.</para>
 
619
 
 
620
          <figure float="0">
 
621
            <title><emphasis role="italic">Applying New
 
622
            Theme</emphasis></title>
 
623
 
 
624
            <mediaobject>
 
625
              <imageobject>
 
626
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_020.png"
 
627
                           format="PNG" width="6cm" />
 
628
              </imageobject>
 
629
            </mediaobject>
 
630
          </figure>
 
631
        </step>
 
632
 
 
633
        <step performance="required">
 
634
          <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> in the
 
635
          <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis> dialogue
 
636
          box.</para>
 
637
 
 
638
          <para>If you open any menu or window, it will reflect the selected
 
639
          theme.</para>
 
640
 
 
641
          <figure float="0" id="fig-chess-blueheart">
 
642
            <title><emphasis role="italic">Chess in Blue Heart
 
643
            Theme</emphasis></title>
 
644
 
 
645
            <mediaobject>
 
646
              <imageobject>
 
647
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_021.png"
 
648
                           format="PNG" width="8cm" />
 
649
              </imageobject>
 
650
            </mediaobject>
 
651
          </figure>
 
652
        </step>
 
653
      </procedure>
 
654
    </sect2>
 
655
 
 
656
    <sect2>
 
657
      <title>Customising a Screensaver</title>
 
658
 
 
659
      <para>A screensaver displays (often moving) images on the screen when
 
660
      your computer is switched on but not in use. To go back to the
 
661
      workspace, you can move the mouse or press any key on the
 
662
      keyboard.</para>
 
663
 
 
664
      <procedure>
 
665
        <title>You can choose a screensaver and customise it. To customise a
 
666
        screensaver:</title>
 
667
 
 
668
        <step performance="required">
 
669
          <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> menu, point
 
670
          to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis> and click
 
671
          <emphasis role="strong">Screensaver</emphasis>. The <emphasis
 
672
          role="strong">Screensaver Preferences </emphasis> dialogue box
 
673
          opens.</para>
 
674
 
 
675
          <figure float="0">
 
676
            <title>Launching Screensaver Preferences Dialogue Box</title>
 
677
 
 
678
            <mediaobject>
 
679
              <imageobject>
 
680
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_022.png"
 
681
                           format="PNG" width="11cm" />
 
682
              </imageobject>
 
683
            </mediaobject>
 
684
          </figure>
 
685
        </step>
 
686
 
 
687
        <step performance="required">
 
688
          <para>Select a screensaver from the list. You can preview the
 
689
          screensaver in the right pane.</para>
 
690
 
 
691
          <figure float="0">
 
692
            <title>Customising Screensaver Settings</title>
 
693
 
 
694
            <mediaobject>
 
695
              <imageobject>
 
696
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_023.png"
 
697
                           format="PNG" width="9cm" />
 
698
              </imageobject>
 
699
            </mediaobject>
 
700
          </figure>
 
701
        </step>
 
702
 
 
703
        <step performance="required">
 
704
          <para>The <emphasis role="strong">Regard the computer as idle
 
705
          after</emphasis> slider specifies when a screensaver starts to work
 
706
          if the computer is not in use. The default time is set to 10
 
707
          minutes. You can use this slider to select how long the computer
 
708
          needs to be idle before the screensaver activates.</para>
 
709
        </step>
 
710
 
 
711
        <step performance="required">
 
712
          <para>To prevent any tampering of your computer in your absence, you
 
713
          can automatically lock your screen the moment the screensaver
 
714
          activates. Locking requires users to type their password to
 
715
          reactivate the desktop. Select the <emphasis role="strong">Lock
 
716
          screen when screensaver is active</emphasis> check box to lock the
 
717
          screen when the screensaver starts.</para>
 
718
        </step>
 
719
 
 
720
        <step performance="required">
 
721
          <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis>.</para>
 
722
        </step>
 
723
      </procedure>
 
724
 
 
725
      <para>The selected screensaver displays when the computer is idle for
 
726
      the specified period.</para>
 
727
    </sect2>
 
728
 
 
729
    <sect2>
 
730
      <title>Customising the Screen Resolution</title>
 
731
 
 
732
      <para>The screen resolution determines how large or small an item looks
 
733
      on the screen.</para>
 
734
 
 
735
      <procedure>
 
736
        <title>To modify the desktop screen resolution:</title>
 
737
 
 
738
        <step performance="required">
 
739
          <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> menu, point
 
740
          to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis> and then click
 
741
          <emphasis role="strong">Screen Resolution</emphasis>. The <emphasis
 
742
          role="strong">Screen Resolution Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box
 
743
          opens.</para>
 
744
 
 
745
          <figure float="0">
 
746
            <title>Launching Screen Resolution Preferences Dialogue
 
747
            Box</title>
 
748
 
 
749
            <mediaobject>
 
750
              <imageobject>
 
751
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_024.png"
 
752
                           format="PNG" width="11cm" />
 
753
              </imageobject>
 
754
            </mediaobject>
 
755
          </figure>
 
756
        </step>
 
757
 
 
758
        <step performance="required">
 
759
          <para>The default resolution is <emphasis
 
760
          role="strong">1280x1024</emphasis>. You can change the resolution in
 
761
          the <emphasis role="strong">Resolution</emphasis> box.</para>
 
762
 
 
763
          <figure float="0">
 
764
            <title>Customising Screen Resolution</title>
 
765
 
 
766
            <mediaobject>
 
767
              <imageobject>
 
768
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_025.png"
 
769
                           format="PNG" width="6cm" />
 
770
              </imageobject>
 
771
            </mediaobject>
 
772
          </figure>
 
773
        </step>
 
774
 
 
775
        <step performance="required">
 
776
          <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Apply</emphasis>. The <emphasis
 
777
          role="strong">Keep Resolution</emphasis> dialogue box opens,
 
778
          prompting you to confirm settings or use the previous resolution and
 
779
          revert to the original settings. Click <emphasis role="strong">Keep
 
780
          resolution</emphasis> to apply new changes.</para>
 
781
 
 
782
          <figure float="0">
 
783
            <title>Resolution Confirmation Dialogue Box</title>
 
784
 
 
785
            <mediaobject>
 
786
              <imageobject>
 
787
                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_026.png"
 
788
                           format="PNG" width="5cm" />
 
789
              </imageobject>
 
790
            </mediaobject>
 
791
          </figure>
 
792
        </step>
 
793
      </procedure>
 
794
 
 
795
      <para>The screen resolution will change.</para>
 
796
    </sect2>
 
797
  </sect1>
 
798
 
 
799
  <sect1>
 
800
    <title>3D Effects</title>
 
801
 
 
802
    <para>A computer screen is two-dimensional (2D) and until recently most
 
803
    applications were developed in a 2D layout.</para>
 
804
 
 
805
    <para>However, advancements in technology fuelled the demand for more
 
806
    life-like on screen visuals, as in three-dimensional (3D) modelling and
 
807
    games. The operating system needs to perform complex calculations to
 
808
    display 3D images in 2D. Consequently, to reduce the burden on the
 
809
    operating system and increase the speed of applications, 3D accelerator
 
810
    cards were developed, which use the graphics processor on the graphics
 
811
    card instead of consuming valuable CPU resources. Almost all modern
 
812
    graphics cards have a built-in acceleration to display 3D.</para>
 
813
 
 
814
    <para>Ubuntu can utilize the 3D capabilities of a graphics card for
 
815
    desktop effects. An example of these can be seen with Compiz Fusion –
 
816
    spinning cubes, floating windows etc. Compiz Fusion is a fun application
 
817
    used to liven up your desktop experience and make it 3D in
 
818
    appearance.</para>
 
819
 
 
820
    <para>The effects are enabled by default and can be controlled from the
 
821
    <emphasis role="strong">Appearance</emphasis> menu. From here the desktop
 
822
    effects can either be completely disabled or enabled. The number of
 
823
    effects can be controlled via the <emphasis role="strong">normal
 
824
    effects</emphasis> and <emphasis role="strong">extra effects</emphasis>
 
825
    setting.</para>
 
826
 
 
827
    <para>If a graphics card does not have 3D capabilities or support for 3D
 
828
    is missing from the Linux drivers for the card, you will be notified that
 
829
    <emphasis role="strong">Desktop effects could not be
 
830
    enabled</emphasis>.</para>
 
831
  </sect1>
 
832
 
 
833
  <sect1>
 
834
    <title>Working with Files Using Nautilus</title>
 
835
 
 
836
    <para>The Nautilus file manager in Ubuntu provides a simple and integrated
 
837
    way to manage files and applications.</para>
 
838
 
 
839
    <sect2>
 
840
      <title>Features of Nautilus</title>
 
841
 
 
842
      <para>The Nautilus file manager enables you to organise files into
 
843
      folders and perform tasks such as:</para>
 
844
 
 
845
      <itemizedlist>
 
846
        <listitem>
 
847
          <para>Create and display folders and documents: Create new files,
 
848
          organise them into folders and save them.</para>
 
849
        </listitem>
 
850
 
 
851
        <listitem>
 
852
          <para>Search and manage your files: Classify files and search them
 
853
          as per their classification.</para>
 
854
        </listitem>
 
855
 
 
856
        <listitem>
 
857
          <para>Open special locations on your computer: Access the local
 
858
          network and save your files.</para>
 
859
        </listitem>
 
860
 
 
861
        <listitem>
 
862
          <para>Write data to a CD or DVD</para>
 
863
        </listitem>
 
864
 
 
865
        <listitem>
 
866
          <para>Navigate using two modes:</para>
 
867
 
 
868
          <itemizedlist>
 
869
            <listitem>
 
870
              <para>Spatial mode: Allows you to open each folder in a separate
 
871
              window, which then helps open your files as physical objects in
 
872
              different locations. You can view the content of various folders
 
873
              simultaneously.</para>
 
874
            </listitem>
 
875
 
 
876
            <listitem>
 
877
              <para>Browser mode: Opens your folders in a single window. Only
 
878
              one file manager opens in browser mode, and it is updated when
 
879
              you click another folder in the file manager.</para>
 
880
            </listitem>
 
881
          </itemizedlist>
 
882
        </listitem>
 
883
      </itemizedlist>
 
884
 
 
885
      <note userlevel="instructor">