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  • Committer: Billy Cina
  • Date: 2007-09-27 15:42:27 UTC
  • Revision ID: training@canonical.com-20070927154227-38oc3hyshv9jqg0i
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
 
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<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN" "http://docbook.org/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd">
 
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<article>
 
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        <title>Ubuntu Desktop ILT</title>
 
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        <sect1>
 
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                <title>Introducing Ubuntu</title>
 
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                <para><emphasis role="strong">Objectives</emphasis></para>
 
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                <para>In this lesson, you will learn about:
 
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                        <itemizedlist>
 
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                                <listitem>
 
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                                        <para>The open-source ideology</para>
 
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                                </listitem>
 
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                                <listitem>
 
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                                        <para>Ubuntu</para>
 
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                                </listitem>
 
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                        </itemizedlist>
 
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                </para>
 
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                <sect2>
 
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                        <title>About Open Source</title>
 
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                        <para><emphasis role="strong"><emphasis role="italic">Instructor Notes:</emphasis></emphasis></para>
 
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                        <para><emphasis role="italic">The focus of this topic is to help students
 
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                        understand the concept of open source, which is the underlying
 
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                        foundation of Ubuntu. Briefly explain the dictionary meaning of 'open
 
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                        source', in general and move on to establishing how the open-source
 
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                        ideology developed in the context of Linux. Present this as a story
 
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                        spread over different phases: free software movement, open-source
 
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                        movement initiation and formal launch of the open-source movement.
 
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                        Carefully weave each of these phases together by building in smooth
 
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                        transitions.</emphasis></para>
 
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                        <para>Ubuntu is a Linux-based open-source eperating system. The term 'open
 
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                        source' can be defined as a set of principles and practices that promotes
 
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                        access to the design and production of goods and knowledge. Open
 
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                        source is generally applied to the source code of software and is 
 
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                        available to users with relaxed or non-existent intellectual
 
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                        property restrictions. This enables users to distribute, create
 
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                        and modify software content, either individually to meet their specific
 
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                        requirement or collaboratively to improve the software. Both open source
 
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                        and Linux have transitioned through various phases to reach their present
 
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                        form.</para>
 
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                        <sect3>
 
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                                <title>The Open-Source Ideology</title>
 
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                                <para>Open source means making both software and its source code
 
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                                freely available for users to use, modify and redistribute.</para>
 
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                                <para>The idea behind openly distributed source code is to encourage
 
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                                the voluntary, collaborative development of software. Technical users
 
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                                continuously improve the software, fix defects, enhance the software
 
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                                and share it with the open source community.</para>
 
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                                <para>As a result of collaborative software development, which involves
 
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                                a large number of programmers creating, enhancing, examining and
 
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                                fixing the software, users receive software that is usually better in
 
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                                quality and performance than proprietary alternatives. Users are free to
 
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                                customise the software to their own personal requirements, which in
 
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                                itself is a huge step away from the 'one size fits all' philosophy.</para>
 
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                        </sect3>
 
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                </sect2>
 
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                <sect2>
 
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                        <title>Linux and Open Source</title>
 
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                        <para>The present-day Linux has evolved over the years since its
 
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                        inception.</para>
 
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                        <sect3>
 
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                                <title>The Free Software Movement</title>
 
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                                <para>In the 1960s, a group of companies including IBM launched a
 
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                                free software programme that could be freely shared amongst users.
 
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                                This software came with source code that could be improved and
 
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                                modified. This was the very early seeds of open source software.</para>
 
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                                <para>In September 1983, Richard Matthew Stallman, former
 
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                                programmer at the MIT AI Lab, software freedom activist, hacker and
 
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                                software developer, launched the GNU project to create a free UNIX-like
 
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                                operating system (OS). With the launch of the GNU project, Stallman
 
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                                started the free software movement and in October 1985, set up the
 
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                                Free Software Foundation.</para>
 
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                                <para>Stallman pioneered the concept of copyleft and is the main
 
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                                author of several copyleft licenses, including the GNU General Public
 
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                                License (GPL), which is the most widely used free software
 
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                                license.</para>
 
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                                <screen><para><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></para>
 
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                                <para>For more information on Richard Stallman and the GNU project,
 
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                                refer to the following URL:
 
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                                <ulink url="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_stallman">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rich ard_stallman</ulink>
 
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                                </para></screen>
 
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                                <para>By 1991, a number of GNU tools, including the powerful GNU
 
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                                compiler collection (GCC), had been created. However, there was no
 
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                                free kernel available to build a free OS that would use these
 
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                                tools.</para>
 
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                        </sect3>
 
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                        <sect3>
 
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                                <title>The Open-Source Movement Initiation</title>
 
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                                <para>In August 1991, Linus Benedict Torvalds, a second-year Finnish
 
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                                student of computer science at the University of Helsinki, started
 
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                                working on Minix.</para>
 
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                                <screen><para><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></para>
 
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                                <para>Minix is a UNIX-like OS with open-source code that Professor
 
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                                Andrew S. Tanenbaum created with the intention to teach his students
 
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                                the internal processes of an OS.</para></screen>
 
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                                <para>By mid-September, Torvalds released the first Linux kernel
 
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                                version 0.01. In 1994, the Linux kernel version 1.0 was released under the GNU GPL.
 
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                                This move heralded the first free operating system. The free kernel and the free GNU tools
 
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                                provided a fertile environment for enthusiasts. By staying close to its
 
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                                UNIX roots, Linux provided a command line interface first. The adaptation of the X Window System made 
 
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                                a graphical user interface (GUI) avaialable at a later stage.</para>
 
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                                <screen><para><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></para>
 
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                                <para>No company or individual owns Linux, not even Linus Torvalds
 
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                                who started Linux. However, Torvalds owns the trademark Linux.</para></screen>
 
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                                <para>With Linux as open-source software, its source code:
 
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                                        <itemizedlist>
 
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                                                <listitem>
 
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                                                        <para>Is available and accessible to everyone</para>
 
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                                                </listitem>
 
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                                                <listitem>
 
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                                                        <para>Can be customised according to an individual's
 
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                                                        requirements and the platforms used</para>
 
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                                                </listitem>
 
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                                        </itemizedlist>
 
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                                </para>
 
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                                <para>This led to the rapid development of Linux in both commercial and non-commercial distribution versions.</para>
 
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                        </sect3>
 
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                        <sect3>
 
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                                <title>The Open-Source Movement's Formal Launch</title>
 
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                                <para>In 1998, Jon "maddog" Hall, Larry Augustin, Eric S. Raymond,
 
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                                Bruce Perens et al formally launched the open-source movement. They
 
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                                promoted free software exclusively on the basis of technical
 
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                                excellence.</para>
 
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                                <para>The open-source movement and the dot-com boom of
 
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                                1998–2000 coincided, resulting in the popularity of Linux and the
 
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                                evolution of many open-source-friendly companies such as Corel (Corel
 
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                                Linux), Sun Microsystems (OpenOffice.org) and IBM (OpenAFS). In the
 
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                                early turn of the 21st century, when the dot-com crash was at its peek,
 
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                                open source was in a prime position as a viable alternative to the expensive
 
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                                proprietary software. Its momentum has strengthened since with the availability of more and more easy to use
 
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                                free appplications.</para>
 
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                        </sect3>
 
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                </sect2>
 
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                <sect2>
 
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                        <title>About Ubuntu</title>
 
135
                        <para><emphasis role="strong"><emphasis role="italic">Instructor Notes:</emphasis></emphasis></para>
 
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                        <para><emphasis role="italic">The focus of this topic is to make the students
 
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                        aware of different versions of Ubuntu and help them understand how the
 
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                        community contributes towards Ubuntu development.</emphasis></para>
 
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                        <para>Ubuntu is a community developed, linux-based operating system
 
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                        that is perfect for laptops, desktops and servers. It contains all the
 
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                        applications you need - a web browser, presentation, document and
 
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                        spreadsheet software, instant messaging and much more. Ubuntu is free
 
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                        software.</para>
 
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                        <screen><para><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></para>
 
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                        <para>Ubuntu derives its name from a South African saying, &ldquo;Umuntu
 
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                        ngumuntu ngamuntu&rdquo;, which means humanity towards others.</para></screen>
 
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                        <para>The history of Ubuntu dates back to 2004 when Mark Shuttleworth
 
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                        formed a group of open-source developers to create a new Linux desktop.
 
149
                        Shuttleworth had envisaged an OS that combines the GNOME desktop
 
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                        and a derivative ofDebian. To achieve his vision, Shuttleworth started a
 
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                        Web site,
 
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                        <ulink url="http://no-name-yet.com">http://no-name-yet.com</ulink>,
 
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                        and founded the Ubuntu community and project, which is sponsered by
 
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                        Canonical Ltd.</para>
 
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                        <para>Ubuntu consists of over 12,000 community members and some 8 million users worldwide, (as of June 2007). </para>
 
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                        <para><emphasis role="strong"><emphasis role="italic">Instructor Notes:</emphasis></emphasis></para>
 
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                        <para><emphasis role="italic">If the students are interested to know more
 
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                        about Mark Shuttleworth, present the following content as a
 
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                        story.</emphasis></para>
 
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                        <para><emphasis role="italic">Mark Shuttleworth is an African entrepreneur
 
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                        with a love for technology, innovation, change and space flight.
 
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                        Shuttleworth studied finance and information technology at the
 
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                        University of Cape Town and went on to found Thawte, a company
 
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                        specialising in digital certificates and cryptography. He sold Thawte to
 
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                        a U.S. company, VeriSign, in 1999 and founded HBD Venture Capital
 
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                        and the Shuttleworth Foundation. He moved to London in 2001 and
 
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                        began preparing for the First African in Space mission, training in Star
 
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                        City, Russia and Khazakstan. In April 2002, he became a space
 
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                        traveller as a member of the cosmonaut crew of Soyuz Mission TM34 to
 
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                        the International Space Station. In early 2004, he founded the Ubuntu
 
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                        project, which aims to produce a free, high-quality desktop OS for
 
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                        everybody.</emphasis></para>
 
173
                </sect2>
 
174
                <sect2>
 
175
                        <title>The Ubuntu Promise</title>
 
176
                        <para><emphasis role="strong"><emphasis role="italic">Instructor Notes:</emphasis></emphasis></para>
 
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                        <para><emphasis role="italic">Stress on the Ubuntu promise because it holds
 
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                        the very essence of the spirit and success of the software.</emphasis></para>
 
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                        <itemizedlist>
 
180
                                <listitem>
 
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                                        <para>Ubuntu will always be free of charge, including enterprise
 
182
                                        releases and security updates.</para>
 
183
                                </listitem>
 
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                                <listitem>
 
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                                        <para>Ubuntu comes with full commercial support from Canonical
 
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                                        and hundreds of companies around the world.</para>
 
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                                </listitem>
 
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                                <listitem>
 
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                                        <para>Ubuntu includes the best translations and accessibility
 
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                                        infrastructure that the free software community has to offer.</para>
 
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                                </listitem>
 
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                                <listitem>
 
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                                        <para>Ubuntu CDs contain only free software applications; Ubuntu
 
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                                        encourages you to use free and open-source software, improve it
 
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                                        and pass it on.</para>
 
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                                </listitem>
 
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                        </itemizedlist>
 
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                </sect2>
 
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                <sect2>
 
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                        <title>Ubuntu Versions</title>
 
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                        <para>In October 2004, Ubuntu released its first version. A new version of
 
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                        Ubuntu is released every six months and upgrades to new releases are
 
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                        free of charge. Its versions are named using the Y.MM (name) scheme,
 
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                        where Y indicates the year and MM refers to the month of release. The
 
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                        name in brackets is a code name given to the version pre-release.</para>
 
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                        <figure>
 
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                        <title><emphasis role="italic">Ubuntu Releases</emphasis></title>
 
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                                <imageobject>
 
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                                        <imagedata fileref="images/chapter1_img_01.png" format="PNG"/>
 
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                                </imageobject>
 
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                        </figure>
 
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                        <sect3>
 
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                                <title>Ubuntu 4.10 (Warty Warthog)</title>
 
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                                <para>Ubuntu 4.10 was the first release of Ubuntu; it was released in
 
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                                October 2004.</para>
 
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                                <screen><para><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></para>
 
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                                <para>The early testing community of version 4.10 was called the Sounder,
 
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                                named after the collective noun for warthogs. The Sounder mailing list
 
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                                continues today as an open discussion forum for the community.</para></screen>
 
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                        </sect3>
 
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                        <sect3>
 
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                                <title>Ubuntu 5.04 (Hoary Hedgehog)</title>
 
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                                <para>Ubuntu 5.04 was the second release of Ubuntu; it was released
 
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                                in April 2005.</para>
 
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                        </sect3>
 
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                        <sect3>
 
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                                <title>Ubuntu 5.10 (Breezy Badger)</title>
 
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                                <para>Ubuntu 5.10 was the third release of Ubuntu; it was released in
 
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                                October 2005.</para>
 
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                        </sect3>
 
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                        <sect3>
 
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                                <title>Ubuntu 6.06 LTS (Dapper Drake)</title>
 
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                                <para>Ubuntu 6.06 LTS was the fourth release of Ubuntu and the first
 
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                                one with Long Time Support (LTS); it was released in June 2006.
 
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                                Ubuntu 6.06 LTS is a long-term support version that provides three
 
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                                years of support on the desktop and five years of support on the server.
 
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                                All other releases provide 18-month support for desktops and
 
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                                servers.</para>
 
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                        </sect3>
 
240
                        <sect3>
 
241
                                <title>Ubuntu 6.10 (Edgy Eft)</title>
 
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                                <para>Ubuntu 6.10 was the fifth release of Ubuntu; it was released in
 
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                                October 2006, on a particularly short cycle, following Ubuntu 6.06 LTS
 
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                                by only four months. Ubuntu 6.10 marks the introduction of Upstart,
 
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                                which is a modern event-based system that is better able to guarantee
 
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                                a robust boot process and deal with events from the modern kernel and
 
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                                removable hardware and replaces the SysV init.</para>
 
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                        </sect3>
 
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                        <sect3>
 
250
                                <title>Ubuntu 7.04 (Feisty Fawn)</title>
 
251
                                <para>The sixth release of Ubuntu, in April 2007, marks the
 
252
                                introduction of hardware-accelerated desktop features and dramatic
 
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                                improvements to network roaming.</para>
 
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                        </sect3>
 
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                        <sect3>
 
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                                <title>Ubuntu 7.10 (Gusty Gibbon)</title>
 
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                                <para>The seventh version of Ubuntu was released on 18 October
 
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                                2007. The key features of this version are improved plug-in handling for
 
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                                Mozilla Firefox and a revamped printing system with PDF printing by
 
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                                default.</para>
 
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                                <para><emphasis role="strong"><emphasis role="italic">Instructor Notes:</emphasis></emphasis></para>
 
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                                <para><emphasis role="italic">This version will have Compiz Fusion, Ebox
 
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                                for server administration, the AppArmor security framework, fast
 
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                                desktop search, fast user switching, improvements in plug-in
 
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                                handling for Mozilla Firefox, a graphical configuration tool for X.org
 
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                                and a revamped printing system with PDF printing by
 
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                                default.</emphasis></para>
 
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                                <para><emphasis role="strong"><emphasis role="italic">Compiz Fusion:</emphasis></emphasis>
 
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                                <emphasis role="italic">It is a collection of plug-ins and a
 
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                                configuration system.</emphasis></para>
 
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                                <para><emphasis role="strong"><emphasis role="italic">Ebox:</emphasis></emphasis>
 
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                                <emphasis role="italic">It is based on the GNU or Linux OS. It is an
 
273
                                open-source distribution that is intended to manage services on a
 
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                                computer network.</emphasis></para>
 
275
                                <para><emphasis role="strong"><emphasis role="italic">AppArmor:</emphasis></emphasis>
 
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                                <emphasis role="italic">AppArmor, or Application Armor, is security
 
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                                        software for Linux.</emphasis></para>
 
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                                <para><emphasis role="strong"><emphasis role="italic">X.Org Server:</emphasis></emphasis>
 
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                                <emphasis role="italic">It is the official reference implementation of
 
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                                X Window System.</emphasis></para>
 
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                        </sect3>
 
282
                        <sect3>
 
283
                                <title>Ubuntu 8.04 LTS (Hardy Heron)</title>
 
284
                                <para>The eighth version of Ubuntu is planned for release in
 
285
                                April 2008 and will form the second long term support release of .</para>
 
286
                        </sect3>
 
287
                </sect2>
 
288
                <sect2>
 
289
                        <title>Ubuntu Development and the Community</title>
 
290
                        <para>Ubuntu is open-source software developed in a joint collaboration
 
291
                        between Ubuntu community members and Canonical developers. Since its
 
292
                        inception in 2004, thousands of users have joined the Ubuntu community.
 
293
                        These users contribute towards Ubuntu development through code writing,
 
294
                        advocacy, artwork and documentation. The development process of
 
295
                        Ubuntu is open for all, whether a novice Ubuntu user or an experienced
 
296
                        Ubuntu developer.</para>
 
297
                        <sect3>
 
298
                                <title>How you can get involved</title>
 
299
                                <para>The Ubuntu community comprises of individuals and teams who
 
300
                                work on different aspects of Ubuntu. If you are a developer you can participate in the core development, write new                                      applications, package additional software and fix bugs. If you are an
 
301
                                artist, you can add value to the look and feel and functionality of Ubuntu. You can also
 
302
                                provide online support, write documentation, assist with training material, join Web forums 
 
303
                                and the mailing lists of Ubuntu; there are lots of ways and means for you to get involved!
 
304
                                The following graphic shows ways in which users can contribute to the Ubuntu community.</para>
 
305
                                <figure>
 
306
                                        <imageobject>
 
307
                                                <imagedata fileref="images/chapter1_img_02.png" format="PNG"/>
 
308
                                        </imageobject>
 
309
                                </figure>
 
310
                        </sect3>
 
311
                        <sect3>
 
312
                                <title>Developer Zone</title>
 
313
                                <para>The developer zone comprises developers who create software,
 
314
                                package additional software and fix bugs in the existing software. They
 
315
                                are responsible for ensuring that Ubuntu works well within the available
 
316
                                resources.</para>
 
317
                        </sect3>
 
318
                        <sect3>
 
319
                                <title>Developer Bounties</title>
 
320
                                <para>If you have ideas for projects, proposals and enhancements but
 
321
                                do not want to implement them, you can add the ideas into the idea
 
322
                                pool available at <ulink url="https://wiki.ubuntu.com/IdeaPool">
 
323
                                https://wiki.ubuntu.com/IdeaPool</ulink>.</para>
 
324
                        </sect3>
 
325
                        <sect3>
 
326
                                <title>Technical Users</title>
 
327
                                <para>If you have the requisite technical skills, you can contribute to
 
328
                                the Ubuntu community in the following ways:
 
329
                                        <itemizedlist>
 
330
                                                <listitem>
 
331
                                                        <para>Test the pre-release versions of Ubuntu to help find
 
332
                                                        bugs before the final release.</para>
 
333
                                                </listitem>
 
334
                                                <listitem>
 
335
                                                        <para>Report bugs and help the development team analyse
 
336
                                                        them.</para>
 
337
                                                </listitem>
 
338
                                                <listitem>
 
339
                                                        <para>Triage bugs to read, assess and sort them before they
 
340
                                                        can be fixed.</para>
 
341
                                                </listitem>
 
342
                                                <listitem>
 
343
                                                        <para>Join an e-mail support list or discussion list on the
 
344
                                                        Ubuntu mailing lists.</para>
 
345
                                                </listitem>
 
346
                                                <listitem>
 
347
                                                        <para>Join Web forums and respond to requests.</para>
 
348
                                                </listitem>
 
349
                                                <listitem>
 
350
                                                        <para>Join the Ubuntu support and discussion Internet Relay
 
351
                                                        Chat (IRC) channel, which is a form of real-time Internet
 
352
                                                        chat.</para>
 
353
                                                </listitem>
 
354
                                        </itemizedlist>
 
355
                                </para>
 
356
                        </sect3>
 
357
                        <sect3>
 
358
                                <title>Non-Technical Users</title>
 
359
                                <para>If you do not have technical knowledge of Ubuntu, you can help
 
360
                                Ubuntu users through the following skills:
 
361
                                        <itemizedlist>
 
362
                                                <listitem>
 
363
                                                        <para>Artwork</para>
 
364
                                                </listitem>
 
365
                                                <listitem>
 
366
                                                        <para>Translation and localisation</para>
 
367
                                                </listitem>
 
368
                                                <listitem>
 
369
                                                        <para>Document solutions</para>
 
370
                                                </listitem>
 
371
                                        </itemizedlist>
 
372
                                </para>
 
373
                        </sect3>
 
374
                        <sect3>
 
375
                                <title>Donations</title>
 
376
                                <para>You can donate for the development of Ubuntu programmes.
 
377
                                Donated funds are used to pay developer contracts for feature goals in
 
378
                                upcoming releases and are added to the bounty fund.</para>
 
379
                        </sect3>
 
380
                        <sect3>
 
381
                                <title>Ubuntu Desktop Course Development</title>
 
382
                                <para>Part of Canonical's mission (Ubuntu's sponsor) is to enable the
 
383
                                widest deployment of Ubuntu on as many computers and servers, in
 
384
                                as many corners of the world as possible. Training is seen as a core
 
385
                                enabler for the adoption of Ubuntu and as such courses are designed to
 
386
                                certify professionalson Ubuntu proficiency, assist partners to deploy Ubuntu and show desktop users (such
 
387
                                as yourselves) how to use and get the most out of it. For
 
388
                                more information on Ubuntu course availability and certifications, please
 
389
                                refer to: www.ubuntu.com/training</para>
 
390
                                <para>As with software development, the community contributes
 
391
                                towards the development and enhancement of this desktop course. As
 
392
                                Ubuntu experts, the community defines the scope and structure of the
 
393
                                training by identifying requirements from the users' perspective; they
 
394
                                also assist the Canonical and 3rd party content writers in developing
 
395
                                content and reviewing it. </para>
 
396
                                <para>The entire content development process is in the true spirit of
 
397
                                open-source and Ubuntu's specific ideology.</para>
 
398
                        </sect3>
 
399
                </sect2>
 
400
                <sect2>
 
401
                        <title>Lesson Summary</title>
 
402
                        <para>In this lesson, you learnt that:
 
403
                                <itemizedlist>
 
404
                                        <listitem>
 
405
                                                <para>The concepts of free software and open software originated
 
406
                                                in the 1960s.</para>
 
407
                                        </listitem>
 
408
                                        <listitem>
 
409
                                                <para>Linux, an open-source OS, was released in 1991. Its
 
410
                                                source code is available and accessible to everyone.</para>
 
411
                                        </listitem>
 
412
                                        <listitem>
 
413
                                                <para>The open-source movement was formally launched in
 
414
                                                1998.</para>
 
415
                                        </listitem>
 
416
                                        <listitem>
 
417
                                                <para>The main idea of the open-source ideology lies within
 
418
                                                openly distributed source code and voluntary, joint development of
 
419
                                                software.</para>
 
420
                                        </listitem>
 
421
                                        <listitem>
 
422
                                                <para>Ubuntu is an open-source operating system developed by a joint
 
423
                                                collaboration between Ubuntu community members and Canonical developers.</para>
 
424
                                        </listitem>
 
425
                                </itemizedlist>
 
426
                        </para>
 
427
                </sect2>
 
428
                <sect2>
 
429
                        <title>Review Exercise</title>
 
430
                        <para><emphasis role="strong"><emphasis role="italic">Instructor Notes:</emphasis></emphasis></para>
 
431
                        <para><emphasis role="italic">If you are running short of time, administer this
 
432
                        exercise when customising the GNOME desktop in
 
433
                        Lesson 3.</emphasis></para>
 
434
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 1</emphasis></para>
 
435
                        <para>What is meant by the term free software?</para>
 
436
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 1</emphasis></para>
 
437
                        <para>Free software is built in an open manner. Anyone can contribute
 
438
                        towards the software development and has access to the source
 
439
                        code.</para>
 
440
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 2</emphasis></para>
 
441
                        <para>What is the Ubuntu promise?</para>
 
442
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 2</emphasis></para>
 
443
                        <para>The Ubuntu promise is:
 
444
                                <itemizedlist>
 
445
                                        <listitem>
 
446
                                                <para>Ubuntu will always be free of charge, including enterprise
 
447
                                                releases and security updates.</para>
 
448
                                        </listitem>
 
449
                                        <listitem>
 
450
                                                <para>Ubuntu comes with full commercial support from
 
451
                                                Canonical and hundreds of companies around the world.</para>
 
452
                                        </listitem>
 
453
                                        <listitem>
 
454
                                                <para>Ubuntu includes the best translations and accessibility
 
455
                                                infrastructure that the open-source community has to offer.</para>
 
456
                                        </listitem>
 
457
                                        <listitem>
 
458
                                                <para>Ubuntu CDs contain only open-source applications;
 
459
                                                Ubuntu encourages you to use free and open-source software,
 
460
                                                improve it and pass it on.</para>
 
461
                                        </listitem>
 
462
                                </itemizedlist>
 
463
                        </para>
 
464
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 3</emphasis></para>
 
465
                        <para>Match the Ubuntu versions with the years in which they were
 
466
                        released.</para>
 
467
                        <table>
 
468
                        <tgroup cols="2">
 
469
                                <colspec colname="col1" align="left"/>
 
470
                                <colspec colname="col2" align="left"/>
 
471
                                <tbody>
 
472
                                        <row>
 
473
                                                <entry><para>1) 7.04</para></entry>
 
474
                                                <entry><para>a) June 2006</para></entry>
 
475
                                        </row>
 
476
                                        <row>
 
477
                                                <entry><para>2) 4.10</para></entry>
 
478
                                                <entry><para>b) October 2007</para></entry>
 
479
                                        </row>
 
480
                                        <row>
 
481
                                                <entry><para>3) 6.06</para></entry>
 
482
                                                <entry><para>c) April 2007</para></entry>
 
483
                                        </row>
 
484
                                        <row>
 
485
                                                <entry><para>4) 7.10</para></entry>
 
486
                                                <entry><para>d) October 2004</para></entry>
 
487
                                        </row>
 
488
                                </tbody>
 
489
                        </tgroup>
 
490
                        </table>
 
491
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 3</emphasis></para>
 
492
                        <table>
 
493
                        <tgroup cols="2">
 
494
                                <colspec colname="col1" align="left"/>
 
495
                                <colspec colname="col2" align="left"/>
 
496
                                <tbody>
 
497
                                        <row>
 
498
                                                <entry><para>1) 7.04</para></entry>
 
499
                                                <entry><para>c) April 2007</para></entry>
 
500
                                        </row>
 
501
                                        <row>
 
502
                                                <entry><para>2) 4.10</para></entry>
 
503
                                                <entry><para>d) October 2004</para></entry>
 
504
                                                </row>
 
505
                                        <row>
 
506
                                                <entry><para>3) 6.06</para></entry>
 
507
                                                <entry><para>a) June 2006</para></entry>
 
508
                                                </row>
 
509
                                        <row>
 
510
                                                <entry><para>4) 7.10</para></entry>
 
511
                                                <entry><para>b) October 2007</para></entry>
 
512
                                        </row>
 
513
                                </tbody>
 
514
                        </tgroup>
 
515
                        </table>
 
516
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Question 4</emphasis></para>
 
517
                        <para>List three ways in which non-technical users can contribute
 
518
                        towards the development of Ubuntu.</para>
 
519
                        <para><emphasis role="strong">Answer 4</emphasis></para>
 
520
                        <para>The three ways in which non-technical users can contribute
 
521
                        towards Ubuntu development are artwork, translation and localisation and
 
522
                        document solutions.</para>
 
523
                </sect2>
 
524
        </sect1>
 
525
</article>