~ricardo-cropalato/ubuntu-desktop-course/ubuntu-desktop-course-pt-br-ricardo-cropalato

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<?xml versão="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE chapter PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN" "http://docbook.org/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd">
<chapter>
	<title>Introdução ao Ubuntu</title>
		<para><emphasis role="strong">Objetivos</emphasis></para>
		<para>Nesta lição, você irá aprender:
			<itemizedlist>
				<listitem><para>Sobre os conceito e fundamentos do código aberto</para></listitem>
				<listitem><para>A ligação entre o Movimento Software Livre, Cóodigo aberto e Linux</para></listitem>
				<listitem><para>Como o Ubuntu <<ties in>> com o código aberto</para></listitem>
				<listitem><para>Como o Ubuntu é desenvolvido</para></listitem>
				<listitem><para>Sobre as versões do Ubuntu</para></listitem>
				<listitem><para>As diferenças entre o Ubuntu e Microsoft Windows</para></listitem>
				</itemizedlist>
		</para>
		<sect1>
			<title>Sobre Código Aberto</title>
			<instructornote><title>Notas ao Instrutor:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">O foco deste tópico é ajudar o aluno
			a entender o conceito de código aberto, which is the underlying
			fundação do Ubuntu. Briefly explain the dictionary meaning of 'open
			source' in general e move on to establishing how the código aberto
			ideology developed no contexto do Linux. Present this as a story
			spread over different phases: Movimento Software Livre, Movimento Código
			Aberto initiation e its formal launch. Explicar o calendário de lançamento do Ubuntu, naming 
			convention e Ubuntu promise in detail.</emphasis></para>
			</instructornote>
			<para>Ubuntu é um sistema operacional Linux-based código aberto. O termo 'open
			source' can be defined as a set of principles e práticas that promotes
			access to the design e production of goods e knowledge. Open
			source is generally applied to the source code of software e is
			disponível to usuários com relaxed or no intellectual property restrictions. 
			This enables usuários to distribute, criar e modificar software content, 
			either individually to meet their specific requirement or collaboratively
			to improve the software. Both código aberto e Linux have transitioned through
			various phases to reach their present form.</para>
			<para>The idea behind openly distributed source code is to encourage
			the voluntary, desenvolvimento colaborativo de software. Users
			continuously enhance the software, corrigir erros, develop new features
			e compartilhar com os outros.</para>
			<para>As a result of collaborative software development which involves
			a large número de programadores, usuários receive software that is often better in
			qualidade e performance than alternativas proprietárias. Users are encouraged to
			customise the software to their own personal requirements, which in
			itself is a huge step away from the 'one size fits all' filosofia.</para>
			<para>Open source projects call on the talents of many people com
			skills other than programming. Many projetos involve artistas, músicos,
			user-interface designers e documentation authors para criar um produto
			completo.</para>
			</sect1>
			<sect1>
			<title>Movimento Software Livre, Código Aberto e Linux</title>
			<para>There is often confusion entre código aberto, softare livre e Linux. While
			all three are inter-linked, there are distinct differences which are made clearer
			when looking at their evolução.</para>
			<sect2>
				<title>O Movimento Software Livre</title>
				<para>Nos anos 60, it was typical for software to be distributed freely
				por companhias such as IBM e shared amongst usuários. Software was then
				considered an enabler for the hardware, around which the business model of
				these corporations was built. Software was provided com source code that could be
				improved e modificado; this was therefore the very early seeds of código aberto
				software. However, as hardware became cheaper e profit margins eroded nos anos
				70, manufacturers looked to software to provide additional revenue
				streams.</para>
				<para>Em Setembro de 1983, Richard Matthew Stallman, former
				programmer at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab lançou o projeto GNU
				para criar um sistema operacional (S.O.) free UNIX-like.
				He was concerned com growth in proprietário software e usuários' inability
				to acessar e modificar programas on their computadores. Developer constraint, 
				as opposed to freedom was prevalent. Com o lançamento do projeto GNU, Stallman
				iniciou o Movimento Software Livre e em Outubro de 1985, set up the Fundação Software
				Livre.</para>
				<para>Stallman pioneered the definição e características do software código
				aberto e the conceito de copyleft. Ele é o principal autor of several copyleft
				licenses, incluindo o GNU General Public License (GPL), which is the most
				widely used free software license.</para>
				<tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
				<para>Para maiores informações sobre Richard Stallman e
				o projeto GNU, refer a seguinte URL:
				<ulink url="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_stallman">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_stallman</ulink></para></tip>
				<para>By 1991, um número de ferramentas GNU, including the powerful GNU
				compiler collection (GCC), had been created. However, a 
				free kernel was yet indisponível to build a free OS that would use these
				ferramentas.</para>
			</sect2>
			<sect2>
				<title>O Movimento Código Aberto e Linux</title>
				<para>A diferença entre software livre e código aberto pode ser definida
				como a diferença entre um movimento social (software livre) e uma metodologia de
				desenvolvimento (código aberto). O Linux refere-se ao kernel, ou ao <<backbones>> da
				arquitetura do código aberto.</para>
				<para>Em Agosto de 1991, Linus Benedict Torvalds, a second-year Finnish
				estudante de ciência da computação na Universidade de Helsinki, started
				working on Minix.</para>
				<figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Linus Benedict Torvalds</emphasis></title>
					<mediaobject><imageobject>
						<imagemdata fileref="images/chapter1_img_02.png" format="PNG" />
					</imageobject></mediaobject>
				</figure>
				<tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
				<para>Minix é um S.O. UNIX-like com código aberto code que o Professor
				Andrew S. Tanenbaum criou com a intenção de ensinar seus estudantes
				os processos internos de um S.O.</para></tip>
				<para>Linux foi inicialmente designado para ser um Minix-like sistema operacional
				que Linus Torvalds could use em seu computador pessoal. By mid-September, Torvalds
				released o primeiro Kernal do Linux versão 0.01. Em 1994, a versão do kernel do Linux
				1.0 was released under the GNU GPL. 
				The free kernel e ferramentas GNU provided a fertile environment
				for entusiastas. By staying close to its UNIX roots, Linux provided a command
				line interface first; a adaptação do Sistema X Window System made
				uma interface de usuário gráfica (GUI) disponível at a later stage.</para>
				<tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
				<para>Linux is not owned by any individual or empresa, not even Linus Torvalds
				who started Linux. However, Torvalds is heavily involved in the main kernel
				development process e owns the trademark, Linux.</para></tip>
				<para>The Linux código aberto code:
					<itemizedlist>
						<listitem><para>É acessível e disponível para todos</para></listitem>
						<listitem><para>Pode ser customizado according to an individual's
						requirements e plataforma utilizada</para></listitem>
						<listitem><para>Pode ser redistribuído livremente in its current or a modified
						form</para></listitem>
					</itemizedlist>
				</para>
				<para>Initially, Linux was seen as (e indeed used by) a very technical, hard
				core código aberto programming tool. Thousands of desenvolvedores contributed to its
				success as it evolved to become more user friendly commercial e non-commercial
				distribution versãos designed for everyday application use.</para>
				<para>Em 1998, Jon "maddog" Hall, Larry Augustin, Eric S. Raymond,
				Bruce Perens et al formally launched the Movimento Código Aberto. Eles
				promoted código aberto software exclusively on the basis of technical
				excellence.</para>
				<figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Fundadores do Movimento do Código Aberto</emphasis></title>
					<mediaobject><imageobject>
						<imagemdata fileref="images/chapter1_img_03.png" format="PNG" />
					</imageobject></mediaobject>
				</figure>
				<para>The movimento do código aberto e a dot.com boom of the late 1990s
				coincided, resultando na popularidade do Linux e the
				evolução de many código aberto friendly companies such as Corel (Corel
				Linux), Sun Microsistemas (OpenOffice.org) e IBM (OpenAFS). In the
				early 21st century when the dot.com crash was at its peak,
				código aberto was in a prime position como uma alternativa viável to expensive
				proprietário software. Its momentum has strengthened since com the availability
				of many fácil to use applications.</para>
				<para>As such, what started off as an idea became a paixão to revolutionise a
				patent e license intense industry. With a significantly cheaper return on investment 
				e enhanced usability features, o Linux é agora rooted como opção viável para
				enterprises e usuários domésticos.</para>
			</sect2>
			</sect1>
			<sect1>		
			<title>About Ubuntu</title>
			<instructornote><title>Notas ao Instrutor:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">O foco deste tópico é fazer com que os estudantes
			entendam a origem do Ubuntu, o ciclo de desenvolvimento, lançamento das versões
			e a importância das contribuições da comunidade <<community contributions towards its development>>.</emphasis></para>
			</instructornote>
			<para>Ubuntu is a community developed, Linux-based operating sistema
			that is perfeita para laptops, desktops e servidores. Ele contém todos os
			aplicativos que você necessita - incluindo um navegador de Internet, presentation, document e
			spreadsheet software, instant messaging e muito mais.</para>
			<tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
			<para>Ubuntu é uma palavra africana que significa 'Humanidade to others', ou 'Eu sou o que sou porque of who we all are'.</para></tip>
			<para>The history of Ubuntu dates back to Abril de 2004 quando Mark Shuttleworth
			formou um grupo de desevolvedores de código aberto para criar um novo S.O. Linux.
			<figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Mark Shuttleworth</emphasis></title>
				<mediaobject><imageobject>
					<imagemdata fileref="images/chapter1_img_04.png" format="PNG" />
				</imageobject></mediaobject>
			</figure>
			Based on the principles of time-based releases, a strong Debian foundation, the GNOME desktop, e a strong commitment 
			to freedom, this group operated initially under the auspices of http://no-name-yet.com.</para>
			<para>In a little over three years, Ubuntu has grown to a community of over 12,000 members e an estimated user base of over 8 million
			(as at Junho 2007).</para>
			<instructornote><title>Notas ao Instrutor:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">Se os estudantes estiverem interessados em conhecer mais
			sobre Mark Shuttleworth, present the following content as a story.</emphasis></para>
			<para><emphasis role="italic">Mark Shuttleworth is an African entrepreneur
			com a love for tecnologia, inovação, change e space flight. Shuttleworth
			estudou finanças e tecnologia da informação na Universidade de Cape Town e
			went on to found Thawte, uma companhia especializada em certificados digitais e
			criptografia. He sold Thawte to the U.S. company VeriSign em 1999 e fundou
			HBD Venture Capital e a Fundação Shuttleworth. Ele mudou-se para Londres em 2001
			e began preparing for the First African in Space mission, training in Star
			City, Russia e Khazakstan. Em Abril de 2002, he became a space traveller as a
			member of the cosmonaut crew of Soyuz Mission TM34 to the International Space
			Station. In early 2004, ele founded o projeto Ubuntu, which aims to produce a
			free, high-quality, user friendly OS disponível para todos.</emphasis></para>
			</instructornote>
			<sect2>
				<title>The Ubuntu Promise</title>
				<instructornote><title>Notas ao Instrutor:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">Stress on the Ubuntu promise because it holds
				the very essence of the spirit e success of the software.</emphasis></para>
				</instructornote>
				<itemizedlist>
					<listitem><para>Ubuntu will always be free of charge, including enterprise
					releases e atualizações de segurança.</para></listitem>
					<listitem><para>Ubuntu comes com full commercial suporte from Canonical
					e hundreds of companies around the world.</para></listitem>
					<listitem><para>Ubuntu includes the best traduçãos e accessibility
					infrastructure that the free software community has to offer.</para></listitem>
					<listitem><para>Ubuntu CDs contain only free software applications; Ubuntu
					encourages você to use free e código aberto software, improve it
					e pass it on.</para></listitem>
				</itemizedlist>
			</sect2>
			<sect2>
				<title>Versões do Ubuntu</title>
				<para>Em Outubro de 2004, o Ubuntu lança sua primeira versão. Uma nova versão do
				Ubuntu é lançada a cada seis meses e upgrades to new releases are
				free of charge. Users are encouraged to upgrade com each new release in 
				order to enjoy the latest features e applications. Its versãos are named using the Y.MM (name) scheme,
				where Y indicates o ano e MM refere-se ao mês de lançamento. O
				nome in brackets is a code name given to the versão pre-release.</para>
				<para>Cada lançamento é suportado por 18 meses; Long Term Support
				releases (LTS) são suportadas por 3 anos na versão desktop e 5 anos na
				server.</para>
				<figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Versões do Ubuntu</emphasis></title>
					<mediaobject><imageobject>
						<imagemdata fileref="images/chapter1_img_05.png" format="PNG" />
					</imageobject></mediaobject>
				</figure>
				<para>Uma breve história das atualizações:</para>
				<itemizedlist>
					<listitem>
				<para><emphasis role="strong">Ubuntu 4.10 (Warty Warthog)</emphasis></para>
				<para>Ubuntu 4.10 foi o primeiro lançamento do Ubuntu em Outubro de 2004.</para>
				<tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
				<para>The early testing community of versão 4.10 was called the Sounder,
				named after the collective noun for warthogs. The Sounder mailing list
				continues today as an open discussion forum for the community. Supported until Abril de 2006.</para></tip>
					</listitem>
					<listitem>
				<para><emphasis role="strong">Ubuntu 5.04 (Hoary Hedgehog)</emphasis></para>
				<para>Ubuntu 5.04 foi o segundo lançamento do Ubuntu em Abril de 2005. Suportada until Outubro de 2006.</para>
					</listitem>
					<listitem>
				<para><emphasis role="strong">Ubuntu 5.10 (Breezy Badger)</emphasis></para>
				<para>Ubuntu 5.10 foi o terceiro lançamento do Ubuntu em Outubro de 2005. Suportada until Abril de 2007.</para>
					</listitem>
					<listitem>
				<para><emphasis role="strong">Ubuntu 6.06 LTS (Dapper Drake)</emphasis></para>
				<para>Ubuntu 6.06 LTS foi o quarto lançamento do Ubuntu e a primeira
				com Long Term Support (LTS); it was released em Junho de 2006.
				Long-term suporte versão refere-se a guarantia de três anos de suporte on the
				desktop e cinco anos na server. All other releases are provided com 18
				month suporte for desktops e servidores. The período extendido de suporte period provides reassurance e makes it easier
				e more prático for large deployments do Ubuntu. for Desktops suporteed until Junho de 2009; servers suporteed until Junho de 2011.</para>
					</listitem>
					<listitem>
				<para><emphasis role="strong">Ubuntu 6.10 (Edgy Eft)</emphasis></para>
				<para>Ubuntu 6.10 foi o quinto lançamento do Ubuntu em Outubro de 2006. Esta versão guarantees a robust boot process.
				Supported until Abril de 2007.</para>
					</listitem>
					<listitem>
				<para><emphasis role="strong">Ubuntu 7.04 (Feisty Fawn)</emphasis></para>
				<para>Ubuntu 7.04 foi lançado em Abril de 2007.  This versão introduced dramatic improvements to network roaming. Supported
				until Outubro de 2008.</para>
					</listitem>
					<listitem>
				<para><emphasis role="strong">Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon)</emphasis></para>
				<para>The seventh iteration do Ubuntu was released em Outubro de
				2007. The key features desta versão são are spectacular visual effects
				por padrão, fast user switching for people using máquinas compartilhadas,
				detecção automática de impressoras e easier desktop file searching e tracking. Supported until Abril de 2009.</para>
					</listitem>
					<listitem>
				<para><emphasis role="strong">Ubuntu 8.04 LTS (Hardy Heron)</emphasis></para>
				<para>O oitavo lançamento do Ubuntu é planejado para
				Abril de 2008 e will form the second Long Term Support release do Ubuntu. Desktops will be suporteed until Abril de 2011; Servers suporteed
				until Abril de 2013.</para>
					</listitem>
				</itemizedlist>
			</sect2>
			<sect2>
				<title>Derivados do Ubuntu</title>
				<para>Ubuntu is also disponível in several edições como Ubuntu, Edubuntu, Kubuntu e Xubuntu. 		
			 Edubuntu é a distribuição baseada no Linux do Ubuntu que é customizada para school environment.
			 Kubuntu é um derivado oficial do Ubuntu utilizando o KDE environment ao invés do GNOME. 
			 Xubuntu is intended for usuários com less-powerful computadores or those who seek a highly efficient desktop environment on faster sistemas.</para>
			</sect2>
				<sect2>
				<title>Ubuntu Development e the Community</title>
				<para>Ubuntu is a joint collaboration project entre Ubuntu community members
				all around the world, e in addition to this community, a Canonical paga
				também desenvolvedores para contribuir para o Ubuntu. Since its inception em 2004,
				thousands of contribuidores have joined na comunidade Ubuntu. These usuários
				contribute towards Ubuntu development through escrevendo códigos, advocacy,
				arte, traduções, testando e documentando (to name just a few).
				O processo de desenvolvimento do Ubuntu é aberto e transparente para todos,
				whether você are a novice Ubuntu user or an experienced Ubuntu developer
				- everyone is welcome to get involved in Ubuntu e improve it.
				</para>
				<para><emphasis role="strong">How você can get involved</emphasis></para>
				<para>The Ubuntu community comprises of many individuals e times who work nos
				diferentes aspectos do Ubuntu. Se você é um desenvolvedor, você pode participar
				in the core development, write new applications, package additional
				software e correção de erros. If você are an artist, você can add value to the
				look e feel e functionality do Ubuntu. You can also provide suporte
				on-line, write documentation, assist com training material, join Web
				forums e the mailing lists do Ubuntu. There are lots of ways to get
				involved!</para>
				<para><emphasis role="strong">Zona do Developer</emphasis></para>
				<para>The developer zone is comprised of developers who create e package software,
				corrigir erros e maintain Ubuntu. They are responsible for ensuring that
				Ubuntu has a wide catalogue de software e it operates reliably e
				smoothly. Uma grande maneira to get started as a packager is to join MOTU - see
				<ulink url="https://wiki.ubuntu.com/MOTU/GettingStarted"> https://wiki.ubuntu.com/MOTU/GettingStarted</ulink> for how to get started.</para>
				<para><emphasis role="strong">Idea Pool</emphasis></para>
				<para>If você have ideas para projetos, proposals e enhancements but do not
				necessarily want to implement them, você can add the ideas into the idea
				pool disponível em <ulink url="https://wiki.ubuntu.com/IdeaPool">
				https://wiki.ubuntu.com/IdeaPool</ulink>.</para>
				<para><emphasis role="strong">Technical Users</emphasis></para>
				<para>If você have the requisite technical skills, você can contribuir para
				a comunidade Ubuntu nas seguintes maneiras:
					<itemizedlist>
						<listitem><para>Test the pre-release versãos of Ubuntu to help find
						bugs before the final release.</para></listitem>
						<listitem><para>Informar erros e ajudar o time de desenvlvimento analyse
						them.</para></listitem>
						<listitem><para>Triage (edit e categorise) bugs to read, assess e sort them before they
						can be fixed.</para></listitem>
						<listitem><para>Join an e-mail suporte list or discussion list on the
						Ubuntu mailing lists.</para></listitem>
						<listitem><para>Join Web forums e respond to requests.</para></listitem>
						<listitem><para>Join the Ubuntu suporte e discussion Internet Relay
						Chat (IRC) channel, which is a form of real-time Internet
						chat.</para></listitem>
					</itemizedlist>
				</para>
				<para><emphasis role="strong">Non-Technical Users</emphasis></para>
				<para>Even if você do not have technical knowledge of Ubuntu, você can help
				Ubuntu usuários through the following skills:
					<itemizedlist>
						<listitem><para>Arte</para></listitem>
						<listitem><para>Translation e localisation</para></listitem>
						<listitem><para>Document solutions</para></listitem>
						<listitem><para>Advocacy</para></listitem>
					</itemizedlist>
				</para>
				<para><emphasis role="strong">Ubuntu Desktop Course Development</emphasis></para>
				<para>Part of Canonical's mission (Canonical sponsors Ubuntu) is to enable the
				widest deployment of Ubuntu on as many computadors e servers, in
				as many corners of the world as possible. Training is seen as a core
				enabler for the adoption of Ubuntu e as such courses are designed to
				certify Ubuntu professionals, assist partners to deploy Ubuntu e show desktop
				usuários (such as vocêrselves) how to use e get the most out of it. For
				more information on Ubuntu course availability e certifications, please
				refer to <ulink url="http://www.ubuntu.com/training"> http://www.ubuntu.com/training</ulink>.</para>
				<para>As com software development, the community contributes
				towards the development e enhancement of this desktop course. As
				Ubuntu experts, the community defines the scope e structure of the
				training by identifying requirements from the usuários' perspective; they
				also assist the Canonical e third-party content writers in developing
				content e reviewing it. More information on the Ubuntu Training community
				effort can be found at
				<ulink url="http://wiki.ubuntu.com/Training">http://wiki.ubuntu.com/Training</ulink>.</para>
				<para>The entire content development process is in the true spirit of
				Ubuntu's philosophy e the código aberto tradition.</para>
			</sect2>
		</sect1>
		<!--		<sect1>
				<title>Software Repository e Categories</title>
				<para>A software repository is a library of software from where você can download
				e install pacotes (applications) over the Internet. The Ubuntu software
				repository contains thousands of pacotes that are freely disponível for
				installation over the Internet. It is fácil to install these pacotes because
				they are specially built for Ubuntu. Ubuntu repositories are categorised into
				four groups based on the level of suporte provided for their content /
				applications e their source code components. These will be covered in more detail in lessons 3, 6 e 7.</para>
			<instructornote><title>Notas ao Instrutor:</title><para><emphasis role="italic"> While explaining the software repository categories, demonstrate where the repositories can be found. These repositories can be accessed by clicking System &gt; Administration &gt; Software Sources.</emphasis></para>
</instructornote>
				<note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
			<para>This course is primarily based on applications disponível in the Main repository, which is the padrão repository in Ubuntu.
			 Applications derived from other components will be highlighted.</para></note>
				<para><emphasis role="strong">The Main Component</emphasis></para>
				<para>The main component contains software pacotes that are free
				e fully suporteed by the Canonical team. These pacotes comply
				com the free software philosophy. The pacotes in the main
				component are disponível por padrão while installing Ubuntu. For all
				pacotes in the main component, security updates e technical
				suporte are disponível free of cost. OpenOffice.org, Abiword e the 
				Apache web server are some of the pacotes found in the main
				component.</para>
				<para><emphasis role="strong">The Restricted Component</emphasis></para>
				<para>The restricted component consists of pacotes for commonly
				used software that is suporteed by the Ubuntu team but not disponível
				under a completely free license. Binary drivers produced by some
				video card vendors are exemplo of pacotes in the restricted
				component. Packages in this component are also disponível on the
				standard Ubuntu installation CD, but they can be easily removed.</para>
				<para><emphasis role="strong">The Universe Component</emphasis></para>
				<para>The universe component includes thousands of 
				pacotes for software that are not oficially suporteed by Canonical. The
				software here is disponível under a variety of licenses from a number of público sources.</para>
				<para>All the pacotes in this component are expected to be Ubuntu compatible,
				however, there is no guarantee of security fixes e suporte for them. Packages in this component are 
				maintained by the community.</para>
				<instructornote><title>Notas ao Instrutor:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">It could be considered risky to use pacotes from
				the universe component, especially because the availability of security
				updates is not guaranteed.</emphasis></para>
				</instructornote>
				<para><emphasis role="strong">The Multiverse Component</emphasis></para>
				<para>The multiverse component contains pacotes of non-free
				software, which means that the licensing requirements of these
				software does not meet the license policy of Ubuntu's main component.
				It is the user's responsibility to verify their rights to use the software
				e comply com stated licensing terms. The pacotes in this component
				do not come com any suporte or security updates. Examples of these
				pacotes include VLC e the Adobe Flash plugin.</para>
				<instructornote><title>Notas ao Instrutor:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">Software from the multiverse 
				component could be restricted by patents or other forms of regulation on usage e distribution.
				It is the responsibility of the user to determine if the software of question
				can be used in its jurisdiction e to comply com local laws.</emphasis></para>
		</instructornote>
</sect1>  -->
				
					<sect1>
			<title>Ubuntu e Microsoft Windows: Principais Diferenças</title>
			<para>Open source differs from the proprietário software model in that it:</para>
				<itemizedlist>
						<listitem><para>Encourages customisation e variation as opposed to a one size fits many approach.</para></listitem>
						<listitem><para>Relies on a 'services attached' business model rather than per license e seat basis.</para></listitem>
						<listitem><para>Believes that the benefits of collaboration e multi-developer contribution outweigh those of 
						controlled project work of smaller paid developer teams.</para></listitem>
				</itemizedlist>
			<para>Ubuntu e Microsoft Windows can be differentiated by many characteristics. Elements of cost, release cycle, security, customisation e mobility are presented here.</para>
			<table>
				<title>Key Attributes</title>
				<tgroup cols="3">
				<thead>
					<row>
						<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Attribute</emphasis></para></entry>
						<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Ubuntu</emphasis></para></entry>
						<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Microsoft Windows</emphasis></para></entry>
					</row>
				</thead>
				<tbody>
					<row>
						<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Custo</emphasis></para></entry>
						<entry><para>
						<itemizedlist>
							<listitem><para>Free of licensing charges</para></listitem>
							</itemizedlist>
						</para></entry>
						<entry><para>
							<itemizedlist>
							<listitem><para>Charges per user license e (optionally) for a fixed term</para></listitem>
							</itemizedlist>
						</para></entry>
					</row>
					<row>
						<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Versions Released</emphasis></para></entry>
						<entry><para>
						<itemizedlist>
							<listitem><para>Same versão e features for home e professional usuários</para></listitem>
							<listitem><para>Six-monthly fully suporteed free release</para></listitem>
						</itemizedlist>
						</para></entry>
						<entry><para>
						<itemizedlist>
							<listitem><para>Increased security for Professional editions Vs. Home editions</para></listitem>
							<listitem><para>Unpredictable release schedule</para></listitem>
						</itemizedlist>
						</para></entry>
					</row>
					<row>
						<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Segurança</emphasis></para></entry>
							<entry><para>
							<itemizedlist>
								<listitem><para>Locked administrative user root</para></listitem>
								<listitem><para>Rarely targeted by malware e vírus</para></listitem>
							</itemizedlist>
						</para></entry>
						<entry><para>
							<itemizedlist>
								<listitem><para>Enables fácil access to administrative
								user</para></listitem>
								<listitem><para>Regularmente targeted by malware e vírus</para></listitem>
							</itemizedlist>
						</para></entry>
					</row>
					<row>
						<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Customização</emphasis></para></entry>
						<entry><para>
							<itemizedlist>
								<listitem><para>Fácil to design e personalise</para></listitem>
								<listitem><para>Runs different flavours of Ubuntu in
								parallel</para></listitem>
							</itemizedlist>
						</para></entry>
						<entry><para>
							<itemizedlist>
								<listitem><para>Standard OS com limited options to
								personalise</para></listitem>
								<listitem><para>Paid for additional applications</para></listitem>
							</itemizedlist>
						</para></entry>
					</row>
					<row>
						<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Data Storage</emphasis></para></entry>
						<entry><para>
							<itemizedlist>
								<listitem><para>Fácil de baixar e atualizar</para></listitem>
								<listitem><para>User data stored in home directory</para></listitem>
								<listitem><para>Fácil de migrar e replicar dados de usuário e
								configuração de outro computador</para></listitem>
								</itemizedlist>
						</para></entry>
						<entry><para>
							<itemizedlist>
								<listitem><para>User data saved in multiple
								locations</para></listitem>
								<listitem><para>Difficult to backup e migrate
								to computador</para></listitem>
							</itemizedlist>
						</para></entry>
					</row>
				</tbody>
				</tgroup>
		</table>
			<para>Looking at each element outlined in the table in greater detail:</para>
			<para><emphasis role="strong">Associated Costs:</emphasis>
			The Microsoft Windows OS is proprietário e the overall price increases com added functionality e applications. The 
			associated price is sometimes a factor of using third party applications e not just a Microsoft decision. With Ubuntu 
			new release versãos e applications are free.</para>
			
			<para><emphasis role="strong">New versão releases:</emphasis>
			There is only one released versão of Ubuntu e therefore features disponível
			to home e professional usuários are the same. The Home e Professional editions of
			Microsoft Windows are not the same. For exemplo, Microsoft Windows Professional editions have
			more security features than Home editions.</para>
			<para>Ubuntu's 6 monthly release cycle also makes it very fácil for usuários to have access to all the latest
			applications. An upgrade from one release to the next is free e fully suporteed. Plans around Microsoft releases
			are less frequent e less visible to the público.</para>
				
			<para><emphasis role="strong">Aspectos de segurança:</emphasis>
			Ubuntu is rarely targeted by malware e vírus. By padrão the administrative
			user root is locked in Ubuntu e only certain tasks are run com administrative
			privileges. Microsoft Windows provides an environment where people
			access administrative user directly.</para>
			<figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Ubuntu Security</emphasis></title>
				<mediaobject><imageobject>
					<imagemdata fileref="images/Lesson02_images_003.png" format="PNG"/>
				</imageobject></mediaobject>
			</figure>
			<para><emphasis role="strong">Customização:</emphasis>
			As você will discover throughout this course, Ubuntu is vocêrs to design
			e personalise. You can have different flavours of Ubuntu running parallel; for
			exemplo, você can install the Kubuntu (KDE) desktop together com Ubuntu (GNOME) e then
			select the desktop environment você want to use. Mais de 17.000 pacotes are disponível e easily accessible through the Internet. 
			As a result, você are not stuck com using one versão because it was the first você instalado.</para>
			<para>Microsoft Windows is a standard OS com some opções
			for customização. While many applications are disponível, most are proprietário software which incur a license fee.</para>
			<figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Customização da Área de Trabalho</emphasis></title>
				<mediaobject><imageobject>
					<imagemdata fileref="images/Lesson02_images_004.png" format="PNG"/>
				</imageobject></mediaobject>
			</figure>
			
			<para><emphasis role="strong">Data Storage:</emphasis>
			User data is often located in multiple locations in Microsoft Windows,
			which can make backing up e migrating from one computador to another tricky.
			Ubuntu saves vocêr user information in one place - the home directory. This makes the migration of data from an old computador to a new
			one fácil, as well as keeping user specific backup data separate.</para>
			<sect2>
				<title>Instalação</title>
				<table>
				<title>Installation Differences</title>
					<tgroup cols="3">
						<thead>
							<row>
								<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Instalação</emphasis></para></entry>
								<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Ubuntu</emphasis></para></entry>
								<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Microsoft Windows</emphasis></para></entry>
							</row>
						</thead>
						<tbody>
							<row>
								<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Instalação do S.O.</emphasis></para></entry>
								<entry><para>
									<itemizedlist>
										<listitem><para>Baixado gratuitamente da Internet ou usando
										uma CD gratuito</para></listitem>
										<listitem><para>Pode ser usado diretamente do
										live-CD</para></listitem>
									</itemizedlist>
								</para></entry>
								<entry><para>
									<itemizedlist>
										<listitem><para>Purchase required</para></listitem>
										<listitem><para>OS must be instalado on computador hard drive</para></listitem>
									</itemizedlist>
								</para></entry>
							</row>
							<row>
								<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Software Installation</emphasis></para></entry>
								<entry><para>
									<itemizedlist>
										<listitem><para>Huge variety of applications disponível by
										padrão</para></listitem>
										<listitem><para>Todos gratuitamente baixados da Internet.</para></listitem>
									</itemizedlist>
								</para></entry>
								<entry><para>
									<itemizedlist>
										<listitem><para>Limited selection of software disponível
										por padrão</para></listitem>
										<listitem><para>Users can purchase e download
										some software online, others can only be manually instalado.</para></listitem>
									</itemizedlist>
								</para></entry>
							</row>
						</tbody>
					</tgroup>
				</table>
				<itemizedlist>
					<listitem><para><emphasis role="strong">Instalação:</emphasis>
					   Ambos Microsoft Windows e Ubuntu come as pre-instalado OSs on computadors.
					   However, to install post-purchase, Ubuntu can be freely downloaded from the 
					   Internet or a free CD can be requested. Any Microsoft Windows versão
					   will need to be purchased.</para>
					<para>Ubuntu comes in live-CD mode which means você can use the OS directly from
					the CD comout installing it on a host computador. If você like what você see, install it. If você don't,
					pass it on to a friend. The live-CD option is also useful for sistema recovery.</para>
					<para>The installation of Microsoft Windows e Ubuntu is fácil e conducted by running
						the installation CD e booting the computador. Both installations vary in length according to 
						how powerful vocêr computador is, com an average install taking 20 - 30 minutes.
					</para></listitem>
					<listitem><para><emphasis role="strong">Software Installation:</emphasis>
					You can add software on Ubuntu by using the Add/Remove Applications e
					Synaptic Package Manager. The Add/Remove Applications allows você to search the
					entire directory of free applications recommended for Ubuntu e install the ones você want.
				   In Microsoft Windows, each programme supplies its own installation method. Microsoft Vista has a
					Digital Locker feature enables usuários to purchase software online e download
					it in a protected manner.</para>
					<figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Installing Software Applications</emphasis></title>
						<mediaobject><imageobject>
							<imagemdata fileref="images/Lesson02_images_006.png" format="PNG"/>
						</imageobject></mediaobject>
					</figure>
				 	</listitem>
				</itemizedlist>
			</sect2>
			<sect2>
				<title>Aplicativos</title>
				<para>The table below displays a comparison entre Ubuntu e Microsoft Windows applications:</para>
				<table>
				<title>Application Based Differences</title>
					<tgroup cols="3">
						<thead>
							<row>
								<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Applications</emphasis></para></entry>
								<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Ubuntu</emphasis></para></entry>
								<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Microsoft Windows</emphasis></para></entry>
							</row>
						</thead>
						<tbody>
							<row>
								<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Web browsing e E-mail</emphasis></para></entry>
								<entry><para>
									<itemizedlist>
										<listitem><para>Firefox Web browser por padrão</para></listitem>
										<listitem><para>Evolution e-mail cliente por padrão</para></listitem>
									</itemizedlist>
								</para></entry>
								<entry><para>
									<itemizedlist>
										<listitem><para>Internet Explorer Web browser por padrão</para></listitem>
										<listitem><para>Outlook e-mail cliente por padrão</para></listitem>
									</itemizedlist>
								</para></entry>
							</row>
							<row>
								<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Word Processing</emphasis></para></entry>
								<entry><para>
									<itemizedlist>
										<listitem><para>OpenOffice.org suite</para></listitem>
										
									</itemizedlist>
								</para></entry>
								<entry><para>
									<itemizedlist>
										<listitem><para>WordPad por padrão</para></listitem>
								
									</itemizedlist>
								</para></entry>
							</row>
							<row>
								<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Multimedia</emphasis></para></entry>
								<entry><para>
									<itemizedlist>
										<listitem><para>Includes several padrão multimedia programmes,
										such as Sound Juicer, Rythmbox, Serpentine, Movie Player e
										Sound Recorder</para></listitem>
									</itemizedlist>
								</para></entry>
								<entry><para>
									<itemizedlist>
										<listitem><para>Includes Microsoft Windows Media Player
										11 (WMP) e Microsoft Windows Media Center (WMC)</para></listitem>
									</itemizedlist>
								</para></entry>
							</row>
							<row>
								<entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Image Editing e Picture
								Management</emphasis></para></entry>
								<entry><para>
									<itemizedlist>
										<listitem><para>F-Spot photo manager</para></listitem>
										<listitem><para>Gimp for imagem editing</para></listitem>
									</itemizedlist>
								</para></entry>
								<entry><para>
									<itemizedlist>
										<listitem><para>Picture Gallery application </para></listitem>
										<listitem><para>Paint</para></listitem>
									</itemizedlist>
								</para></entry>
							</row>
						</tbody>
					</tgroup>
				</table>

				<para>Looking at each element outlined in the table in greater detail:</para>
					<para><emphasis role="strong">Networking, Web browsing e
					E-mail</emphasis></para>
					<para>Network setup on both Ubuntu e Microsoft Windows is fácil. Web
					browsing features are relatively the same on both OSs.</para>
					<para>Mozilla Firefox is loaded as the padrão browser on Ubuntu, e
					Internet Explorer is the padrão browser on Vista. You can also install Firefox on
					Microsoft Windows.</para>
					<para>Evolution is the padrão e-mail cliente on Ubuntu. It connects
					to POP accounts, conventional UNIX mailboxes e Exchange servers
					via Outlook Web Access. Evolution also has a built-in Personal
					Information Manager (PIM) e a calendaring e appointment sistema.
					The Microsoft Windows Mail application in Vista is a rewritten
					versão of Outlook Express, com a stripped down calendar or appointment
					application, Microsoft Windows Calendar. An upgrade to Outlook is suggested if você
					use the calendar often or if você have a full PIM. Ubuntu usuários enjoy the out-of-the-box mail cliente setup facility.</para>
					<figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Evolution E-mail Client</emphasis></title>
						<mediaobject><imageobject>
							<imagemdata fileref="images/Lesson02_images_008.png" format="PNG"/>
						</imageobject></mediaobject>
					</figure>
								
					<para><emphasis role="strong">Processador de Texto:</emphasis>
					The OpenOffice.org suite is instalado on Ubuntu por padrão e
					provides many features of Microsoft Office. 
					Vista comes com WordPad por padrão; the full versão of Microsoft Word (or Office) for Microsoft Windows,
					is disponível at an additional cost.
					<figure><title><emphasis role="italic">OpenOffice.org Writer</emphasis></title>
						<mediaobject><imageobject>
							<imagemdata fileref="images/Lesson02_images_009.png" format="PNG"/>
						</imageobject></mediaobject>
					</figure></para>
					
					<para><emphasis role="strong">Multimídia:</emphasis>
					Several multimedia programmes are configured por padrão on Ubuntu,
					such as Sound Juicer, Rythmbox, Serpentine, Movie Player e Sound
					Recorder. Sound Juicer is the padrão application for playing audio
					CDs. If você plug-in an iPod on Ubuntu, Rhythmbox organises music e creates
					playlists for você.  This is similar to Microsoft Windows Media Player. You can use
					Serpentine to author audio CDs. </para>
					<para>To play the mp3 format on Ubuntu, você need to install a codec pack. This is because 
					Ubuntu is not distributed com mp3 codecs due to licensing restrictions. Playback of mp3 
					files is enabled por padrão on some versãos of Microsoft Windows.</para>
				<para>Vista has two multimedia programmes, Windows Media Player 11 (WMP for short) e Windows Media Center (WMC for short). 
					WMP is best for playing music, e WMC is useful if você are using the computador as
					vocêr core entertainment sistema. WMP can contain a large music
					library. With the index search sistema of WMP, você can search music
					numbers by a particular artist or search for specific numbers.</para>
					<para><emphasis role="strong">Image Editing e Picture Management:</emphasis>
					With the Picture Gallery application of Microsoft Vista, você can
					upload thousands of image e add tags. You can also organise the image
					quickly e work on them easily because você can tag them com one click.
					F-Spot photo manager organises vocêr personal photos on Ubuntu.
					It integrates seamlessly com popular Web based imagem databases, such as
					Flickr e Picasa Web.</para>
					<para>Ubuntu provides Gimp for imagem editing which is a powerful Photoshop-like application. 
					Microsoft Windows Vista provides 'Paint' for basic imagem editing.</para>
					<figure><title><emphasis role="italic">GIMP</emphasis></title>
						<mediaobject><imageobject>
							<imagemdata fileref="images/Lesson02_images_010.png" format="PNG"/>
						</imageobject></mediaobject>
					</figure>
					
										
			</sect2>
		</sect1>	
		<sect1>
			<title>Lição Summary</title>
			<para>In this lesson, você learned:</para>
				<itemizedlist>
				<listitem><para>About the fundamentals e concept of código aberto</para></listitem>
				<listitem><para>The link entre the Movimento Software Livre, Open source e
				Linux</para></listitem>
				<listitem><para>How Ubuntu ties in com código aberto</para></listitem>
				<listitem><para>How Ubuntu is developed</para></listitem>
				<listitem><para>About Ubuntu versãos</para></listitem>
				<listitem><para>Key differences entre Ubuntu e Microsoft Windows</para></listitem>
			</itemizedlist>
		</sect1>
		   <questions>
		<sect1>
			<title>Exercício de Revisão</title>
			<instructornote><title>Notas ao Instrutor:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">If você are running short of time, administer this
			exercício when Exploring the Ubuntu Desktop in Lição 3.</emphasis></para>
			</instructornote>
			<para><emphasis role="strong">Questão 1</emphasis></para>
			<para>What is meant by the term free software?</para>
			<answer>
			<para><emphasis role="strong">Resposta 1</emphasis></para>
			<para>Quoting the Free Software Foundation's 'What is Free Software', the freedoms at the core of free software are defined as:</para>
			<itemizedlist>
			<listitem><para>The freedom to run the programme, for any purpose.</para></listitem>  
			<listitem><para>The freedom to study how the programmand works e adapt it to vocêr needs.</para></listitem>    
    	   <listitem><para>The freedom to redistribute copies so você can help others.</para></listitem>    
			<listitem><para>The freedom to improve the programme e release vocêr improvements to the público, so that everyone benefits.</para></listitem>
			</itemizedlist>
			</answer>
			<para><emphasis role="strong">Questão 2</emphasis></para>
			<para>What é the Ubuntu promise?</para>
			<answer>
			<para><emphasis role="strong">Resposta 2</emphasis></para>
			<para>The Ubuntu promise é:
				<itemizedlist>
					<listitem><para>Ubuntu will always be free of charge, including enterprise
					releases e security updates.</para></listitem>
					<listitem>
					<para>Ubuntu comes com full commercial suporte da
					Canonical e hundreds of companies around the world.</para></listitem>
					<listitem><para>Ubuntu includes the best traduçãos e accessibility
					infrastructure that the código aberto community has to offer.</para></listitem>
					<listitem><para>Ubuntu CDs contain only código aberto applications;
					Ubuntu encourages você to use free e código aberto software,
					improve it e pass it on.</para></listitem>
				</itemizedlist>
			</para>
			</answer>
			<para><emphasis role="strong">Questão 3</emphasis></para>
			<para>Match the Ubuntu versãos com the years in which they were
			released.</para>
			<table>
			<tgroup cols="2">
				<colspec align="left" colname="col1" />
				<colspec align="left" colname="col2" />
				<tbody>
					<row>
						<entry><para>1) 7.04</para></entry>
						<entry><para>a) Junho 2006</para></entry>
					</row>
					<row>
						<entry><para>2) 4.10</para></entry>
						<entry><para>b) Outubro 2007</para></entry>
					</row>
					<row>
						<entry><para>3) 6.06</para></entry>
						<entry><para>c) Abril 2007</para></entry>
					</row>
					<row>
						<entry><para>4) 7.10</para></entry>
						<entry><para>d) Outubro 2004</para></entry>
					</row>
				</tbody>
			</tgroup>
			</table>
			<answer>
			<para><emphasis role="strong">Resposta 3</emphasis></para>
			<table>
			<tgroup cols="2">
				<colspec align="left" colname="col1" />
				<colspec align="left" colname="col2" />
				<tbody>
					<row>
						<entry><para>1) 7.04</para></entry>
						<entry><para>c) Abril 2007</para></entry>
					</row>
					<row>
						<entry><para>2) 4.10</para></entry>
						<entry><para>d) Outubro 2004</para></entry>
						</row>
					<row>
						<entry><para>3) 6.06</para></entry>
						<entry><para>a) Junho 2006</para></entry>
						</row>
					<row>
						<entry><para>4) 7.10</para></entry>
						<entry><para>b) Outubro 2007</para></entry>
					</row>
				</tbody>
			</tgroup>
			</table>
			</answer>
			<para><emphasis role="strong">Questão 4</emphasis></para>
			<para>List three ways in which non-technical usuários can contribute
			towards the development of Ubuntu.</para>
			<answer><para><emphasis role="strong">Resposta 4</emphasis></para>
			<para>The three ways in which non-technical usuários can contribute
			towards Ubuntu development are arte, tradução e localisation e
			document solutions.</para></answer>
			<para><emphasis role="strong">Questão 5</emphasis></para>
			<para>The padrão web browser on Ubuntu is _________________.</para>
			<answer><para><emphasis role="strong">Resposta 5</emphasis></para>
			<para>The padrão web browser on Ubuntu is Mozilla Firefox.</para></answer>
			<para><emphasis role="strong">Questão 6</emphasis></para>
			<para>The padrão e-mail cliente on Ubuntu is __________________.</para>
			<answer><para><emphasis role="strong">Resposta 6</emphasis></para>
			<para>The padrão e-mail cliente on Ubuntu is Evolution.</para></answer>
			<para><emphasis role="strong">Questão 7</emphasis></para>
			<para>What are the vantagens of Ubuntu 6 monthly releases?</para>
			<answer><para><emphasis role="strong">Resposta 7</emphasis></para>
			<para>Quicker upgrade e availability of new applications, as well as improved functionality.</para></answer>
		</sect1>
			</questions>
</chapter>