~ubuntu-core-doc/kubuntu-docs/karmic

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.3//EN" 
"http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.3/docbookx.dtd" [
<!ENTITY % globalent SYSTEM "../../../libs/global.ent">
%globalent;
<!ENTITY % kde-menus-C SYSTEM "../../../libs/kde-menus-C.ent">
%kde-menus-C;
<!ENTITY % xinclude SYSTEM "../../../libs/xinclude.mod">
%xinclude;
<!ENTITY language "en">
]>
<article id="network" status="complete">

<articleinfo>
<title>Networking</title>
&legalnotice;
<abstract>
<para>
This chapter contains information on general networking with Kubuntu. Topics
covered include connecting to the internet as well as connecting and sharing
files between a Windows or Mac system and Kubuntu.
</para>
</abstract>
</articleinfo>

<!-- INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING -->
<sect1 id="network-intro" status="complete">
<title>Introduction to networking in Kubuntu</title>

<para>
Networking in Kubuntu has gotten much easier for everyone. The days of
configuring your settings via the command line are almost gone completely. A
majority of users will never have to use the command line when configuring their
network settings in order to share files between PCs or to gain access to the
Internet. There are those select few who might be utilizing hardware that is not
Linux certified as of yet. For those, there might be the possibility of making
changes via the command line.
</para>

<para>
<application>KNetworkManager</application> makes connecting and managing your
connections a snap. Whether you are using a wired (Ethernet) connection or a
wireless connection, <application>KNetworkManager</application> can monitor for
connects and disconnects, locates wireless access points, and manages your
wireless encryption (see <xref linkend="network-apps-knetworkmanager"/>).
</para>

<para>
Some users will want to do more than surf the Internet or read Email such as
sharing files between a Windows PC or a Mac. Setting up Kubuntu on a Windows
network is a very simple task and at most will only require very minor command
line usage.
</para>

<note>
<title>Determining your network hardware</title>
<para>
If you are having issues connecting to your network or the Internet, the first
thing you need to do is locate the model of the network device you are using.
To do so, unfortunately you will have to use the command line at this time. To
get to the command line in Kubuntu, press
<keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F2</keycap></keycombo>. This will open
up a pop-up called <application>KRunner</application>. Enter the word
<userinput>konsole</userinput> and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. You will
notice that once <application>Konsole</application> opens, you will see
something similar to <prompt>username@hostname:~$</prompt>. Here you will type
<userinput>lspci</userinput> and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. Locate your
network hardware information, you will need this for the upcoming sections,
especially for wireless cards.
</para>
</note>

</sect1>

<!-- SETTINGS (IP ADDRESS, GATEWAY, NETMASK, BROADCASE, NETWORK, DNS) -->
<sect1 id="network-connect-settings" status="complete">
<title>Common network settings</title>

<para>
A majority of connection settings can be changed from within the
<guilabel>Network Settings</guilabel> section of System Settings. To access the
Network Settings, go to
<menuchoice>
<guimenu>Kickoff Application Launcher</guimenu>
<guimenuitem>System Settings</guimenuitem>
</menuchoice>
and then select <guilabel>Network Settings</guilabel> at the lower left of the
window.
</para>

<para>
No matter the connection you are using, the network settings will usually be
configured the same. Most users are probably familiar with Windows networking
and seeing terms such as <acronym>IP</acronym> address, gateway address,
netmask address, and <acronym>DNS</acronym> addresses. They are still the same
in Kubuntu however there are two extra settings that are common with Linux
systems, network address and broadcast address however these extra settings
are not necessary for basic home networking and connecting to the Internet.
</para>

<para>
Please select from the following to get a brief introduction to each settings.
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><xref linkend="network-connect-settings-ip"/></para></listitem>
<listitem><para><xref
linkend="network-connect-settings-gateway"/></para></listitem>
<listitem><para><xref
linkend="network-connect-settings-netmask"/></para></listitem>
<listitem><para><xref linkend="network-connect-settings-dns"/></para></listitem>
<listitem><para><xref linkend="network-connect-settings-hostname"
/></para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>

<example id="nic-settings">
<title>Kubuntu Network Interface Setting</title>
<programlisting>
# eth0 is set to automatically receive its address (DHCP)
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp

# eth1 is setting its own address (static)
auto eth1
iface eth1 inet static
    address 192.168.1.100
    netmask 255.255.255.0
    network 192.168.1.0
    broadcast 192.168.0.255
    gateway 192.168.1.1
</programlisting>
</example>


<!-- IP ADDRESS  --> 
<sect2 id="network-connect-settings-ip" status="complete">
<title><acronym>IP</acronym>  Address</title>

<para>
An <acronym>IP</acronym> address is a unique identifier, commonly known as the
computer's address, that is used in communicating between other computers on a
network and the Internet.  There are two versions of <acronym>IP</acronym>
addressing, <acronym>IPv4</acronym> which is the most widely used and the
oldest, and <acronym>IPv6</acronym> which is newer. <acronym>IPv6</acronym>
was created to cure the fact the world was running out of <acronym>IP</acronym>
addresses.
</para>

<example id="ipv4">
<title><acronym>IPv4</acronym> <acronym>IP</acronym> address</title>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>192.168.1.100</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>10.0.0.100</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>63.184.200.19</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</example>

<example id="ipv6">
<title><acronym>IPv6</acronym> <acronym>IP</acronym> address</title>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>E3D7:0000:0000:0000:51F4:9BC8:C0A8:6420</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>E3D7::51F4:9BC8:C0A8:6420</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</example>

</sect2>

<!-- GATEWAY ADDRESS --> 
<sect2 id="network-connect-settings-gateway" status="complete">
<title>Gateway <acronym>IP</acronym> Address</title>

<para>
A gateway address is also known as the default gateway. The gateway serves as
an access point to another network and a majority of the times would be your
service provider in order to gain access to the Internet. A gateway
<acronym>IP</acronym> address looks the same as an <acronym>IP</acronym>
address.
</para>

</sect2>

<!-- NETMASK -->
<sect2 id="network-connect-settings-netmask" status="complete">
<title>Netmask</title>

<para>
A netmask address, or subnet mask, is an address that allows the splitting of
a large network into small subnetworks.
</para>

</sect2>

<!-- DNS -->
<sect2 id="network-connect-settings-dns" status="complete">
<title><acronym>DNS</acronym> <acronym>IP</acronym> Address</title>

<para>
<acronym>DNS</acronym> (Domain Name System) translates domain names as well as
computer hostnames to <acronym>IP</acronym> addresses. This is the system that
will translate www.kubuntu.org into the websites actual <acronym>IP</acronym>
address.
</para>
</sect2>

<!-- HOSTNAME -->
<sect2 id="network-connect-settings-hostname" status="complete">
<title>Host name</title>

<para>
The host name is the physical, unique name of your computer. A valid hostname
consists of <acronym>ASCII</acronym> letters &quot;a&quot; through
&quot;z&quot;, digits &quot;0&quot; through &quot;9&quot;, and the hyphen (-).
It can consist of any combination of the previous allowed characters.
</para>
</sect2>

</sect1>

<!-- NETWORK-CONNECTING -->
<sect1 id="network-connecting" status="complete">
<title>Establishing a connection</title>

<para>
Establishing a connection depends on various things. Are you connecting
directly to the Internet utilizing a modem whether it be a
<acronym>DSL</acronym> modem or a dial-up modem? Do you have broadband access
and have a router or a system providing Internet sharing? Are you using Ethernet
or wireless network connection? <acronym>DHCP</acronym> or static? These are
just a few of the variables that need to be researched and understood prior to
moving on and possibly causing more problems now or later on.
</para>

<para>
There are multiple ways of connecting to a network or the Internet however only
three main topics will be covered.
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><xref linkend="network-connect-eth"/></para></listitem>
<listitem><para><xref linkend="network-connect-wifi"/></para></listitem>
<listitem><para><xref linkend="network-connect-modems"/></para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>

<note>
<para>
<acronym>DSL</acronym> (Digital Subscriber Line) is a form of broadband Internet
service that has a modem that connects to the service providers network. Some
users will either connect directly to that modem or may have a router connected
to it in order to share the connection.
</para>
</note>

<note>
<para>
<acronym>DHCP</acronym> (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is
a networking protocol that allows your system to obtain an
<acronym>IP</acronym> (Internet Protocol) address, gateway address, netmask, as
well as <acronym>DNS</acronym> (Domain Name System) addresses. Using DHCP
is setup by default for each network interface installed into the system.
This makes connecting easier and seamless in most situations. Please <xref
linkend="network-connect-settings"/>.
</para>
</note>
</sect1>

<!-- ETHERNET -->
<sect1 id="network-connect-eth" status="complete">
<title>Ethernet</title>

<para>
Ethernet adapters are the most common types of networking interfaces in use
today. Ethernet is physically connected with a cable to either your broadband
modem, router or switch, or another <acronym>PC</acronym>. The most common type
of cable in use is know as Category-5 (<acronym>CAT</acronym>-5). It looks
similar to the typical telephone cable, but instead of four wires inside the
cable there are eight. For an example of what a <acronym>CAT</acronym>-5 cable
looks like, please review <ulink url="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat-5"/>.
</para>

<para>
A majority of users who are using this form of Ethernet for a connection are
not going to run into any problems. If you do in fact run into an issue
connecting with this type of connection, the following could potentially assist
you in fixing your issue.
</para>

<sect2 id="network-connect-eth-gui" status="complete">
<title>GUI based troubleshooting and settings</title>

<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term>
<menuchoice>
<guimenu>Kickoff Application Launcher</guimenu>
<guimenuitem>System Settings</guimenuitem>
<guilabel>Network Settings</guilabel>
</menuchoice>
</term>
<listitem>
<para>
From within the <guilabel>Network Connection</guilabel> window there is a tab
named <guilabel>Network Interfaces</guilabel>. Hopefully you will see your
adapter labeled something like <guilabel>eth0</guilabel>. If there is an issue
with the card or the settings, usually the system will automatically disable
the card. If the card is disabled, you will see <guilabel>X Disabled</guilabel>
under the <guilabel>State</guilabel> column. To enable the device, simply press
the <guibutton>Administrator Mode...</guibutton> at the bottom of the window.
This will open a password dialog in which you enter your username's password.
Once you have entered this mode, simply press the <guibutton>Enable
Interface</guibutton> button. If there are issues enabling the device, you will
be notified with an error. To see the settings of this device, press the
<guibutton>Configure Interface...</guibutton> button. The window that opens
will allow you to manually configure your network settings to match your
network.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
</sect2>

<sect2 id="network-connect-eth-cli" status="complete">
<title>Command line based troubleshooting and settings</title>

<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term>
<menuchoice>
<guimenu>Kickoff Application Launcher</guimenu>
<guisubmenu>System</guisubmenu>
<guimenuitem>Terminal Program (Konsole)</guimenuitem>
</menuchoice>
</term>
<listitem>
<para>
The main file that the user will be working with is
<filename>/etc/network/interfaces</filename>. A typical default
<filename>interfaces</filename> file will look similar to the following:
</para>
<example id="etc-net-interface">
<title><filename>/etc/network/interfaces</filename></title>
<programlisting>
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp

auto eth1
iface eth1 inet dhcp
</programlisting>
</example>
<note><title>KNetworkManager Warning</title>
<para>
If you are planning on using <application>KNetworkManager</application> it is
advised that you <emphasis role="bold">DO NOT</emphasis> edit
<filename>/etc/network/interfaces</filename> unless it is necessary to get your
network connection working. If you do manually edit your
<filename>/etc/network/interfaces</filename> then
<application>KNetworkManager</application> will not work.
</para>
</note>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
</sect2>

</sect1>

<!-- WIFI -->
<sect1 id="network-connect-wifi" status="complete">
<title>WiFi</title>

<para>
Wireless networking has gotten better with Kubuntu &distro-rev;, however there
are still problems for users who do not have a card supported natively. 
If you have not purchased a wireless card yet, please take a look at the
supported hardware at
<ulink
    url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/WifiDocs/WirelessCardsSupported"/>.
</para>

<sect2 id="network-connect-wifi-howdoi" status="complete">
<title>How do I...</title>

<variablelist>
    
<varlistentry>
<term>...figure out if my wireless card works?</term>
<listitem>
<para>
If your wireless card has been detected,
<application>KNetworkManager</application> will have a menu entry listing your
wireless device. You can attempt to connect to your wireless network by
clicking on the System Tray icon and selecting your wireless network. If you
are able to browse the network with the a web browser, you have successfully
connected to the internet. 
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>

<varlistentry>
<term>...configure encryptions such as <acronym>WEP</acronym> or
<acronym>WPA</acronym></term>
<listitem>
<para>
With <application>KNetworkManager</application> you simple click the
application icon in the system tray and select the wireless network you want to
connect to. When you click on a network that has encryption enabled, you will
get a pop-up dialog to enter this information. Once entered, this information is
stored within the <application>KWallet</application> utility. This allows you
to connect to that network in the future just by entering your
<application>KWallet</application> password.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>

<varlistentry>
<term>...check if I have a Internet connection?</term>
<listitem>
<para>
Open up <application>Konqueror</application>, and try to browse to 
<ulink url="http://www.ubuntu.com"/>. If this worked, you have a fully working
internet connection. 
</para>
<para>
If the above did not work, open <application>Konsole</application>
(&menukonsole;) and type <userinput>ping gateway_ip_address</userinput>
(substitute gateway_ip_address by the ip address of your gateway. This address
will be something like 10.0.0.1, 192.168.1.1, or 192.168.2.1, but may vary
depending on the nature of your network). If you are able to ping your gateway,
then the DNS on your computer is working correctly. If you are not able to ping
the gateway, then you do not have a proper Internet connection.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>

<varlistentry>
<term>...figure out which wireless card my system uses?</term>
<listitem>
<para>
<emphasis role="bold">Command line</emphasis>: (&menukonsole;) This will
open up <application>Konsole</application> providing you with a terminal or the
command line. Once you are sitting at the command prompt simply type
<userinput>lspci</userinput> and press the <keycap>Enter</keycap> key. Locate
the <guilabel>Network controller:</guilabel> line as this will provide
information about your wireless adapter.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>

<varlistentry>
<term>...get help with my wireless connection?</term>
<listitem>
<para>
It is recommended that you use another
connection source to the Internet and read through the many topics for wireless
connections. The following are just a couple locations to review.
</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>
<ulink url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/WifiDocs"/>
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
<ulink url="http://www.ubuntuforums.org/forumdisplay.php?f=136"/>
</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>

<varlistentry>
<term>...get my Broadcom wireless adapter to work?</term>
<listitem>
<para>
Since kernel version 2.6.17, support for Broadcom wireless devices were
included. This means that there are some Broadcom devices that work out of the
box, however there are still many that don't. If your Broadcom wireless device
isn't working then you have two choices;
<application>bcm43xx-fwcutter</application> or
<application>NdisWrapper</application>. 
</para>
<para>
With the
<application>bcm43xx-fwcutter</application> utility there are only a select few
devices that actually work. To see the devices that are currently supported
please review <ulink url="http://bcm43xx.berlios.de/?go=devices"/>. If your
device is not supported then it is advised that you use the
<application>NdisWrapper</application> utility. For information on configuring
your device with the <application>bcm43xx-fwcutter</application> utility please
see <xref linkend="network-connect-wifi-bcm43xx"/> and for configuring your
device with <application>NdisWrapper</application> utility please see <xref
linkend="network-connect-wifi-ndiswrapper"/>.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
</sect2>

<sect2 id="network-connect-wifi-ndiswrapper" status="complete">
<title>NdisWrapper</title>

<note>
<title>Command Line Intensive</title>
<para>
Configuration of <application>NdisWrapper</application> is command line
intensive. There are currently no graphical clients to aide in this
configuration. Even though it is command line oriented, the instructions are
easy to follow.
</para>
</note>

<note>
<title>Hardware Platforms</title>
<para>
This method is only supported for users of the Intel and AMD platforms. Users
of older iBooks and Powerbooks cannot use this method. However, users of
MacBooks (Intel based) should be able to use this method. 
</para>
</note>

<para>
<application>NdisWrapper</application> is considered the wireless fix-all for
Linux. A great percentage of wireless adapters that are not supported natively
or with other utilities are supported with
<application>NdisWrapper</application>. Install
<application>ndiswrapper</application> by using
<application>Software Management</application>. If you are uncomfortable with installation
practices then it is advised that you review the <ulink
url="help:/kubuntu/add-applications/">Adding Applications</ulink> document.
</para>

<para>
Once you have installed <application>NdisWrapper</application>, 
locate the Windows drivers either on a <acronym>CD</acronym> or the
Internet. Drivers for Windows XP are preferred, however Windows 2000 drivers
will usually work just as well. Once you have located the CD or the drivers on
the Internet, copy them to a local folder on your system. In
some instances, you may have your drivers in a <filename>driver.zip</filename>
or a <filename>driver.exe</filename> file. If it the file is in a
<filename>.zip</filename> format, unzip the file by either
<mousebutton>right</mousebutton> clicking on the file and selecting
<guilabel>Extract</guilabel> from the pop-up menu. If the file is in a
<filename>.exe</filename> format, then install the
<application>cabextract</application> utility and open up
<application>Konsole</application> to navigate the correct directory. Once you
have navigated to the directory storing the <filename>.exe</filename> file,
type <userinput>cabextract filename.exe</userinput>. This will extract or
unzip the file to the directory you are in. The driver will be in the
<filename>.inf</filename> format, so what you will want to do is type
<userinput>sudo ndiswrapper -i filename.inf</userinput> and press
<keycap>Enter</keycap>. If successful you shouldn't receive any errors. This
command has gone ahead and loaded or installed the drivers in the
<application>NdisWrapper</application> module. To see if these drivers worked,
simply type <userinput>sudo modprobe ndiswrapper</userinput> and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. Test to see if you have a network and/or Internet
connection.
</para>

<para>
If everything went well then the final step would be to load the
<application>NdisWrapper</application> module by default. To do this simple
type <userinput>sudo sh -c "echo ndiswrapper >> /etc/modules"</userinput> and
press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. This will automatically start
<application>NdisWrapper</application> at boot time.
</para>

<para>
If everything didn't go so well, the issue may not be with
<application>NdisWrapper</application> but possibly with
<application>KNetworkManager</application>. To see if in fact that
<application>KNetworkManager</application> was at fault, simply click the system
tray icon and select <guilabel>Quit</guilabel>. Once
<application>KNetworkManager</application> has closed, go back to the command
line and type <userinput>sudo modprobe -r ndiswrapper &amp;&amp; sudo modprobe
ndiswrapper</userinput> and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. This will unload
<application>NdisWrapper</application> and then reload it. After you have
reloaded it, test your network and/or Internet connection again.
</para>

</sect2>

<sect2 id="network-connect-wifi-bcm43xx" status="complete">
<title>Broadcom</title>

<para>
Since the 6.10 (Edgy Eft) release, the kernel has included driver support for
some Broadcom cards utilizing the <application>bcm43xx-fwcutter</application>
utility. Currently there are not that many supported cards, however development
continues. To see if your card is supported please review the list at <ulink
url="http://bcm43xx.berlios.de/?go=devices"/>. If your card is not included in
the list, then refer to <xref linkend="network-connect-wifi-ndiswrapper"/>.
</para>
<para>
To get started, the first thing you will need to do is install the
<application>bcm43xx-fwcutter</application> utility. For more information on
installing extra applications, please refer to the <ulink
url="help:/kubuntu/add-applications/">Adding Applications</ulink> section.
</para>

<para>
Once you have <application>bcm43xx-fwcutter</application> installed you can
read through a list of links to various drivers for your Broadcom device. To do
this open up <application>Konsole</application> (&menukonsole;) and type at the
prompt <userinput>zless /usr/share/doc/bcm43xx-fwcutter/README.gz</userinput>
and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. You have the choice of picking a driver from
that list, driver CD, or manufacturer's website. The file you are interested in
using is the <filename>bcwl5.sys</filename> file. If you have the drivers in a
<filename>.zip</filename> format, unzip the files to a local directory. If the
drivers are in a <filename>.exe</filename> format, you will need to install
<application>Cabextract</application>. With
<application>Cabextract</application>, at the command line locate the directory
where you downloaded or copied the file to. Once there type at the prompt
<userinput>cabextract filename.exe</userinput> and press
<keycap>Enter</keycap>. This will extract the file into the directory you are
in.
</para>

<para>
Now that you have the driver files extracted, navigate with
<application>Konsole</application> to the directory with the driver files. Next
you will use the <application>bcm43xx-fwcutter</application> utility to install
the drivers. To do so, at the prompt type <userinput>sudo bcm43xx-fwcutter -w /lib/firmware/$(uname -r) bcwl5.sys</userinput>. You may receive a couple of
warnings which are nothing to worry about. If it didn't work, it will provide
an error that states either driver isn't supported or the driver is to old. If
this is the case, you would repeat this step using one of the drivers from the
list in the <filename>README.gz</filename> file shown above. If you continue to
have issues, connect to the Internet with another source and review the
following sites:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><ulink url="http://bcm43xx.spugna.org/"/></para></listitem>
<listitem><para><ulink
url="http://www.ubuntuforums.org/forumdisplay.php?f=136"/></para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
If you continue to have issues with loading the drivers, then you may need to
use the <application>NdisWrapper</application> utility.
</para>

<para>
Now if you went through the driver installation without any major errors or
issues, the next step would be to load the new module you created in the
previous step. At the command line type <userinput>sudo modprobe bcm43xx</userinput> and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. To see if the module
loaded and is working, at the prompt type <userinput>iwconfig</userinput> and
press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. If it works it should return the name of the
interface as <acronym>ethX</acronym> where X is the number of the device. In
most cases it may be <acronym>eth1</acronym> if you have a
<acronym>CAT-5</acronym> Ethernet device already installed and configured. Also
to test and see if your device can scan, at the command prompt type
<userinput>sudo iwlist ethX scan</userinput> and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.
Don't worry if it reports <emphasis>no networks found</emphasis> as your
connection may still be working. Test and see if you can connect to your
network and the Internet. If everything has worked then you will want to add
the module so it will load at boot. To do so, at the command prompt type
<userinput>sudo sh -c "echo bcm43xx >> /etc/modules"</userinput> and press
<keycap>Enter</keycap>.
</para>

</sect2>

</sect1>

<!-- MODEMS -->
<sect1 id="network-connect-modems" status="complete">
<title>MODEMS</title>

<sect2 id="modems-adsl" status="complete">
<title>ADSL</title>

<note>
<para>
Please refer to <ulink url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/ADSLPPPoE"/> for
further information if you run into issues with the following procedures.
</para>
</note>

<sect3 id="pppoe-adsl" status="complete">
<title>PPPoE ADSL Modem Installation</title>

<procedure>
<step>
<para>
Open <application>Konsole</application> by going to &menukonsole;.
</para>
</step>

<step>
<para>
At the command prompt type <userinput>sudo pppoeconf</userinput> and press
<keycap>Enter</keycap>.
</para>
</step>

<step>
<para>
A text-based menu program will guide you through the next steps, which are:
</para>
<substeps>
<step>
<para>
Confirm that your Ethernet card is detected.
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
Enter your username provided by your <acronym>ISP</acronym>.
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
Enter your password provided by your <acronym>ISP</acronym>.
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
If you already have a <acronym>PPPoE</acronym> connection configured, you will
be asked if it may be modified.
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
When asked if you want the <option>noauth</option> and the
<option>defaultroute</option> options and want to remove the
<option>nodetach</option> option, choose <emphasis role="bold">Yes</emphasis>.
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
When asked if you want to use <option>peer DNS</option>, choose <emphasis
role="bold">Yes</emphasis>.
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
When asked if you want the <option>Limited MSS</option>, choose <emphasis
role="bold">Yes</emphasis>.
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
When asked if you want to connect at start up, select <emphasis
role="bold">Yes</emphasis> to enable a start up connection, or <emphasis
role="bold">No</emphasis> to manually connect.
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
When asked if you want to connect immediately, select the appropriate response.
</para>
</step>
</substeps>
</step>

<step>
<para>
To start your <acronym>ADSL</acronym> connection on demand type <userinput>pon dsl-provider</userinput> and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.
</para>
</step>

<step>
<para>
To stop your <acronym>ADSL</acronym> connection type <userinput>poff
dsl-provider</userinput> and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.
</para>
</step>
</procedure>

</sect3>

<sect3 id="usb-adsl" status="complete">
<title>USB ADSL Modem Installation</title>

<para>
Due to similar issues of that with a Winmodem, installation and configuration
of a <acronym>USB</acronym> <acronym>ADSL</acronym> modem may require lengthy
procedures depending on the type of modem. For further installation
information, pleas refer to <ulink
url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/UsbAdslModem"/>. You will of course need
another means of connection in order to review this documentation.
</para>

</sect3>
</sect2>

<sect2 id="modems-dialup" status="complete">
<title>Dial-Up</title>

<para>
Many people still access the Internet via a dial-up modem today. There are two
basic types of dial-up modems in use.
<variablelist>
<varlistentry><term>Software Modems</term>
<listitem>
<para>
Software modems, also known as Winmodems, are the type that are usually built
into the system itself whether it is a desktop or a laptop. These modems are
usually connected to a <acronym>PCI</acronym> port inside of the computer or a
<acronym>USB</acronym> port outside of the computer. There are still quite a
few of these types of modems that are not supported by Linux due to the type of
binary driver or firmware they use. Winmodems supported in Linux are also known
as Linmodems.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>

<varlistentry><term>Hardware Modems</term>
<listitem>
<para>
Hardware modems, or true modems, are usually connected to the serial port
outside of the computer and process the raw modem commands unlike a Winmodem.
These types of modems have become rare of late however they still stand as the
most supported type of modem for Linux as they typically do not need a special
driver.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
</para>

<para>
The following sections will provide information on installation and
configuration of your modem. The last section will provide configuration
information on configuring a dial-up connection (see <xref
linkend="dialup-config"/>).
</para>

<sect3 id="winmodem" status="complete">
<title>Winmodem Installation</title>

<para>
Unfortunately due to the many different types of chipsets and the work involved
in getting a Winmodem installed and functioning would be difficult to document
in this one location. However, there are already documents out there to help
you in your success at getting your Winmodem to work with Kubuntu. Not every
Winmodem is guaranteed to work, but there are utilities out there to aide you
in getting a supported Winmodem to work. The following links will hopefully
provide the information needed to get your Winmodem working.
</para>

<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>
<ulink url="http://www.linmodems.org/"/> - This site is the main informational
point for getting Winmodems, or Linmodems as they are also known as, installed
and working in Linux.
</para>
</listitem>

<listitem>
<para>
<ulink url="http://132.68.73.235/linmodems/index.html#scanmodem"/> - This site
provides useful information on the <application>scanModem</application>
utility. This is the utility that will not only detect your Winmodem, but it
will also provide information on the type of support for your device.
</para>
</listitem>

<listitem>
<para>
<ulink url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/DialupModemHowto/ScanModem"/> -
Ubuntu community documentation on utilizing the
<application>scanModem</application> utility within Ubuntu and Kubuntu.
</para>
</listitem>

<listitem>
<para>
<ulink url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/DialupModemHowto"/> - Ubuntu
community documentation on general dial-up modem information. A good starting
point for Ubuntu and Kubuntu systems alike.
</para>
</listitem>

<listitem>
<para>
Winmodems are not modems website that
contains a very broad database of Winmodem support. Use this to further verify
support for your modem, or research the list first before trying to install a
device that may not be supported.
</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>

</sect3>

<sect3 id="hardware-modem" status="complete">
<title>Hardware Modem Installation</title>

<para>
Unlike software modems, or Winmodems, hardware modems do not need special
software drivers. If your modem connects to your <acronym>PC</acronym> via the
serial port, then you are in fact using a hardware modem. In order to configure
your modem, you need to know which <acronym>COM</acronym> port, or serial port,
you are using. The typical structure for <acronym>COM</acronym> devices is
<filename>/dev/ttySx</filename>, where x is one less than the
<acronym>COM</acronym> port number. For instance, if you plug your modem into
<acronym>COM</acronym> port 1, then you would use the
<filename>/dev/ttyS0</filename> device. Port 2 would be
<filename>/dev/ttyS1</filename> and so on.
</para>

</sect3>

<sect3 id="dialup-config" status="complete">
<title>Dial-up Internet configuration</title>

<para>
There are a few ways in order for you to get your dial-up connection working
with the Internet.
</para>

<sect4 id="kppp" status="complete">
<title>Using KPPP</title>

<para>
<application>KPPP</application> - The dialer and front end for
<application>pppd</application> which allows for interactive script generation
and network setup. This is the preferred application in Kubuntu for dial-up
modems. For more information on setting up <application>KPPP</application>,
please refer to <ulink type="help" url="help:/kppp">The KPPP
Handbook</ulink>.
</para>

</sect4>

<sect4 id="wvdial" status="complete">
<title>Using WvDial</title>

<para>
<application>WvDial</application> - The command line Linux application for
dial-up modems. This utility has been around almost since the invention of
Linux itself. The following is a quick step-by-step procedure for using
<application>WvDial</application>. Note that <application>WvDial</application>
use is command line intensive.
</para>

<procedure>
<step>
<para>
Open <application>Konsole</application> by going to &menukonsole;.
</para>
</step>

<step>
<para>
At the command prompt, type <userinput>sudo wvdialconf /etc/wvdial.conf</userinput> and then press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.
</para>
<note><title>ERROR</title>
<para>
If you see the following error, then your modem is not supported, in use, or
not properly configured.
</para>
</note>
<screen>
Editing `/etc/wvdial.conf'.

Scanning your serial ports for a modem.

Modem Port Scan&lt;*1&gt;: S0   S1   S2   S3


Sorry, no modem was detected!  Is it in use by another program?
Did you configure it properly with setserial?

Please read the FAQ at http://open.nit.ca/wiki/?WvDial

If you still have problems, send mail to &lt;wvdial-list@lists.nit.ca&gt;.
</screen>
</step>

<step>
<para>
If you did not receive the previous error message then you can move on and
finish the setup by manually editing the <filename>/etc/wvdial.conf</filename>
configuration file. To do so press
<keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F2</keycap></keycombo>, type
<userinput>kdesu kwrite /etc/wvdial.conf</userinput> and press the
<keycap>OK</keycap> button.
</para>
</step>

<step>
<para>
After opening the <filename>wvdial.conf</filename>, insert your
<acronym>ISP</acronym> information where needed. Other options may be needed in
order to get your Winmodem to work correctly. This information is either
available on the <ulink url="http://www.linmodems.org/">Linmodems</ulink>
website, or if you sent an email to their mailing-list, the information they
provided to aide you in your setup. You can also type <userinput>man wvdial.conf</userinput> at the command prompt for further information.
</para>
</step>

<step>
<para>
Save and close out of the <filename>/etc/wvdial.conf</filename> configuration
file.
</para>
</step>

<step>
<para>
At the command line, try to dial out by typing <userinput>sudo wvdial</userinput> and pressing <keycap>Enter</keycap>.
</para>
</step>

</procedure>

</sect4>

<sect4 id="pppconfig" status="complete">
<title>Using pppconfig with pon &amp; poff</title>

<para>
<application>pppconfig</application> is another command line option used to
manage dial-up connections. This setup is not the easiest to configure, however
it is a very flexible application. The <application>pon</application> and
<application>poff</application> dial and hang-up when using the
<application>pppconfig</application> utility.
</para>

<para>
If you are interested in using this utility, please refer to the <ulink
url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/DialupModemHowto/SetUpDialer#head-
0769b0061bf81bfba710118540bd86223e815761">wiki topic for pppconfig</ulink>.
</para>

</sect4>
</sect3>
</sect2>
</sect1>

<!-- SHARING BETWEEN SYSTEMS -->
<sect1 id="network-sharing" status="complete">
<title>Network sharing</title>

<para>
Network sharing in Kubuntu, or Linux in general is easy and only requires very
little configuration. Three quick choices are
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term><application>Samba</application></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Provides file and print services to all
<acronym>SMB</acronym>/<acronym>CIFS</acronym> clients, including Microsoft
Windows. <acronym>Samba</acronym> is the recommended way to connecting to your
Microsoft shares and the easiest to setup and configure.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>

<varlistentry>
<term><application>NFS</application></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Network File System supports sharing of files, printers and resources over a
network. <application>NFS</application> is more difficult to setup and
configure however it contains extra features and added benefits to an all Linux
network.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>

<varlistentry>
<term><application>ZeroConf</application></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Zero Configuration Networking is a system that automatically creates an
<acronym>IP</acronym> network without configuration or servers. This type of
setup allows users without the knowledge of networking to easily configure a
simple network.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
</para>

<sect2 id="network-sharing-samba" status="complete">
<title>Samba</title>

<para>
If you are using a Windows network, then <application>Samba</application> may
be your choice and configuration does not require use of the command line. To
start simply press <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F2</keycap></keycombo>
and type <userinput>kdesu kwrite /etc/samba/smb.conf</userinput> and press the
<guibutton>Run</guibutton> button. This will open the
<application>KWrite</application> text editor. Navigate down just below the
<guilabel>Global Settings</guilabel> section to where it says
<guilabel>workgroup = MSHOME</guilabel> and change out the
<guilabel>MSHOME</guilabel> to match your Windows workgroup. Save the file and
close <application>KWrite</application>. The next step is to install
<application>Samba</application>. For more information on installation please
review the section <ulink url="help:/kubuntu/add-applications">Adding
Applications</ulink>.
</para>

<para>
To connect to the SAMBA shares, acess them from <application>Kickoff Application Launcher</application> icon will allow you to navigate to
<guilabel>Computer</guilabel><guisubmenu>Network</guisubmenu>. Once you have navigated to there, you will
be able to access <guilabel>Samba Shares</guilabel>.
</para>

<para>
For more information, further instructions, or advanced features of
<application>Samba</application> please review <ulink
url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/SettingUpSamba"/>.
</para>

</sect2>

<sect2 id="network-sharing-nfs" status="complete">
<title><acronym>NFS</acronym></title>

<para>
<acronym>NFS</acronym>, or Network File System, is a file system supporting the
sharing of files, printers and resources permanently over a network.
<acronym>NFS</acronym> is much more advanced and difficult than
<application>Samba</application>. Considering <acronym>NFS</acronym> is a very
extensive protocol for file sharing, this portion of the Kubuntu System
Documentation will ask you to review the following sites for further
information:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para><ulink url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/NFSv4Howto"/></para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para><ulink url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/SettingUpNFSHowTo"/></para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para><ulink
url="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Installation/OnNFSDrive"/></para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para><ulink url="http://nfs.sourceforge.net/"/></para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>


</para>

</sect2>

<sect2 id="network-sharing-zeroconf" status="complete">
<title>ZeroConf Networking</title>

<para>
<acronym>ZeroConf</acronym>, or Zero Configuration Networking, is a system that
automatically creates an <acronym>IP</acronym> network without special
configurations or servers. This type of networking and sharing is by far the
most simple and is targeted to users with little or no networking knowledge.
<acronym>ZeroConf</acronym> allows a user to to connect to computers, networked
printers, and other shareable resources on the network without configuring
network settings by hand.
</para>

<procedure>
<title>ZeroConf Configuration</title>
<step>
<para>
Open <application>System Settings</application> by going to &menusysset;.
</para>
</step>

<step>
<para>
Select <guilabel>Network Settings</guilabel>.
</para>
</step>

<step>
<para>
In the left hand side of the <application>Network Settings</application>
dialog, select the <guilabel>Zeroconf Service Discovery</guilabel> option.
</para>
</step>

<step>
<para>
If the <guilabel>Enable Zeroconf network browsing</guilabel> or the
<guilabel>Browse local network</guilabel> options are not selected, please
select them now and press the <guibutton>Apply</guibutton> button.
</para>
</step>
</procedure>

<procedure>
<title>Accessing network shares</title>
<step>
<para>
Select <guimenuitem>Remote Places</guimenuitem> from the <guibutton>System
Menu</guibutton> icon located to the immediate right of the
<application>Kickoff Application Launcher</application>.
</para>
</step>

<step>
<para>
To view other <acronym>ZeroConf</acronym> systems, select <guilabel>Network
Services</guilabel> from the main window.
</para>
</step>

<step>
<para>
To view all available systems on your network, select <guilabel>Samba
Shares</guilabel> from the main window.
</para>
</step>
</procedure>

</sect2>
</sect1>

<!-- NETWORK APPLICATIONS -->
<sect1 id="network-apps" status="complete">
<title>Networking Applications</title>

<para>
Kubuntu has a a great deal of applications designed around networking. Whether
it is network monitoring, network security, or many others, Kubuntu has a
solution for you. For more information on some of the available networking
applications for Kubuntu, please see:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><xref linkend="network-apps-knetworkmanager"/></para></listitem>
<listitem><para><xref linkend="network-apps-wireshark"/></para></listitem>
<listitem><para><xref linkend="network-apps-etherape"/></para></listitem>
<listitem><para><xref linkend="network-apps-firewall"/></para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>

<sect2 id="network-apps-knetworkmanager" status="complete">
<title>KNetworkManager</title>

<para>
<application>KNetworkManager</application> is the KDE front end for
<application>NetworkManager</application>. Providing a sophisticated yet
intuitive user interface, <application>KNetworkManager</application> allows
users to easily switch their network environment.
<application>KNetworkManager</application> is installed with every Kubuntu
system. The following is a brief list of the devices that
<application>KNetworkManager</application> supports:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>
Wired Ethernet (<acronym>IEEE</acronym> 802.3)
</para>
</listitem>

<listitem>
<para>
Wireless Ethernet (<acronym>IEEE</acronym> 802.11): Unencrypted, WEP, WPA
(Personal and Enterprise)
</para>
</listitem>

<listitem>
<para>
Virtual Private Network (<acronym>VPN</acronym>):
<application>OpenVPN</application>, <application>VPNC</application>
</para>
</listitem>

<listitem>
<para>
Dial-Up (<acronym>PPP</acronym>)
</para>
</listitem>

</itemizedlist>
</para>

<para>
More information can be found on the <application>KNetworkManager</application>
website located at <ulink
url="http://en.opensuse.org/Projects/KNetworkManager"/>.
</para>

</sect2>

<sect2 id="network-apps-wireshark" status="complete">
<title>Wireshark</title>

<para>
<application>Wireshark</application> is a network traffic analyzer, or
&quot;sniffer&quot;, used to capture packets off the wire while decoding
numerous protocols. More information can be found on the
<application>Wireshark</application> website located at <ulink
url="http://www.wireshark.org/"/>.
</para>

<para>
<application>Wireshark</application> isn't installed initially with Kubuntu.
Installation is easy using <application>Software Management</application>. For more
information on installing extra applications with Kubuntu, please see the <ulink
url="help:/kubuntu/add-applications/">Adding Applications</ulink> document.
</para>
</sect2>

<sect2 id="network-apps-etherape" status="complete">
<title>EtherApe</title>

<para>
<application>EtherApe</application> graphically displays network activities.
Active hosts are shown as circles of varying size, and the traffic among them
is shown as lines of varying width. <application>EtherApe</application> is a
<application>GNOME</application> application and requires the
<application>GNOME</application> libraries. These libraries will automatically
be installed and configured for you if you decide to use
<application>EtherApe</application>. More information can be found on the
<application>EtherApe</application> website located at <ulink
url="http://etherape.sourceforge.net"/>.
</para>

<para>
<application>EtherApe</application> isn't installed initially with Kubuntu.
Installation is easy using <application>Software Management</application>. For more
information on installing extra applications with Kubuntu, please see the
<ulink url="help:/kubuntu/add-applications/">Adding Applications</ulink>
document.
</para>
</sect2>

<sect2 id="network-apps-firewall" status="complete">
<title>Guarddog</title>

<para>
<application>Guarddog</application> is a firewall configuration utility for
KDE. It is aimed at two groups of users:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>
Novice to intermediate users who are not experts in <acronym>TCP/IP</acronym>
networking and security
</para>
</listitem>

<listitem>
<para>
Those users who don't want the hassle of dealing with cryptic shell scripts and
ipchains or iptables parameters.
</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
More information can be found on the <application>Guarddog</application>
website located at <ulink url="http://www.simonzone.com/software/guarddog/"/>.
</para>

<para>
<application>Guarddog</application> isn't installed initially with Kubuntu.
Installation is easy using <application>Software Management</application>. For more
information on installing extra applications with Kubuntu, please see the
<ulink url="help:/kubuntu/add-applications/">Adding Applications</ulink>
document.
</para>

</sect2>
</sect1>

</article>