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  • Committer: Karl Schock
  • Date: 2008-05-20 17:39:31 UTC
  • Revision ID: schock@kanu-20080520173931-g0ir6m7qnnlso0tx
Chapter 7 translated (by Gordian)

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
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<!DOCTYPE chapter PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN" "http://docbook.org/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd">
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<chapter>
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                <title>Customising the Desktop and Applications</title>
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                <para><emphasis role="strong">Objectives</emphasis></para>
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                <para>In this lesson, you will learn how to:</para>
 
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                <title>Anpassung von Desktop und Anwendungen</title>
 
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                <para><emphasis role="strong">Lernziele</emphasis></para>
 
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                <para>In dieser Unterrichtseinheit lernen Sie</para>
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                <itemizedlist>
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                        <listitem>
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                                <para>Customise the look and feel of the Ubuntu desktop</para>
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                        </listitem>
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                        <listitem>
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                                <para>Work with the Nautilus file manager</para>
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                        </listitem>
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                        <listitem>
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                                <para>Identify the different package (application) managers and their
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                                purpose</para>
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                        </listitem>
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                        <listitem>
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                                <para>Add and remove an applications using three different tools:</para>
 
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                                <para>wie Sie das Look and Feel des Ubuntu Desktops anpassen</para>
 
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                        </listitem>
 
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                        <listitem>
 
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                                <para>mit dem Dateimanager Nautilus zu arbeiten</para>
 
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                        </listitem>
 
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                        <listitem>
 
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                                <para>die verschiedenen Paketverwaltungs-Anwendungen und deren Einsatzbereiche kennen</para>
 
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                        </listitem>
 
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                        <listitem>
 
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                                <para>eine Anwendung mit Hilfe dreier unterschiedlicher Werkzeuge hinzuzufügen und wieder zu entfernen:</para>
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                                <itemizedlist>
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                                        <listitem>
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                                                <para>Add and remove a software using Add/Remove Applications</para>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                        <listitem>
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                                                <para>Add and remove a software package using Synaptic Package
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                                                Manager</para>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                        <listitem>
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                                                <para>Add and remove a software package using a command line
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                                                interface</para>
 
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                                                <para>ein Programm mit der Hinzufügen/Entfernen-Anwendung hinzuzufügen und zu entfernen</para>
 
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                                        </listitem>
 
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                                        <listitem>
 
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                                                <para>ein Programmpaket mit der Synaptic-Paketverwaltung hinzuzufügen und zu entfernen</para>
 
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                                        </listitem>
 
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                                        <listitem>
 
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                                                <para>ein Programmpaket über die Kommandozeile hinzuzufügen und zu entfernen</para>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                </itemizedlist>
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                        </listitem>
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                        <listitem>
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                                <para>Identify the types of single package files and their use</para>
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                        </listitem>
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                        <listitem>
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                                <para>Install and uninstall Debian packages</para>
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                        </listitem>
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                        <listitem>
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                                <para>Identify the categories of software repositories</para>
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                        </listitem>
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                        <listitem>
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                                <para>Add extra repositories</para>
 
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                                <para>die einzelnen Typen von Paketen zu erkennen und zu verstehen</para>
 
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                        </listitem>
 
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                        <listitem>
 
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                                <para>Debian-Pakete zu installieren und zu deinstallieren</para>
 
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                        </listitem>
 
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                        <listitem>
 
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                                <para>die Kategorien der Software-Repositories zu verstehen</para>
 
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                        </listitem>
 
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                        <listitem>
 
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                                <para>Weitere Repositories hinzuzufügen</para>
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                        </listitem>
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                </itemizedlist>
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                <sect1>
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                        <title>Introduction</title>
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                        <para>AS discussed in lesson 3, Ubuntu comes with a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI)
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                        called GNOME. Unlike other desktops,
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                        the Ubuntu desktop comes completely clean and free of pre-determined 
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                        icons and buttons. You may want to add icons as per your requirements,
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                        which implies a need for customisation.</para>
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                        <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
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                        <para>GNU is a recursive acronym for 'GNU's Not Unix'; it is pronounced
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                        <emphasis role="italic">guh-noo.</emphasis></para></tip>
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                        <para>In this lesson, you will learn about various ways to set up your Ubuntu
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                        desktop to suit your requirements. You will also learn how to install and
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                        uninstall various software applications.</para>
 
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                        <title>Einleitung</title>
 
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                        <para>Sie haben in Lerneinheit 3 gelernt, dass Ubuntu mit einer anwenderfreundlichen Benutzungsoberfläche namens GNOME ausgestattet ist. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Desktops ist der Ubuntu Desktop sehr aufgeräumt und frei von vorbestimmten Symbolen und Buttons. Sie möchten möglicherweise Symbole hinzufügen; das heißt, Sie wollen Anpassungen an Ihre eignen Bedürfnisse vornehmen.</para>
 
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                        <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Gut zu wissen:</emphasis></title>
 
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                        <para>GNU ist ein rekursives Acronym für 'GNU's Not Unix', also 'GNU ist nicht Unix'.</para></tip>
 
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                        <para>In dieser Unterrichtseinheit lernen Sie verschiedene Wege kenne, wie Sie Ihren Ubuntu Desktop Ihren Bedürfnissen anpassen können. Außerdem lernen Sie, wie Sie verschiedenartige Anwendungen installieren und deinstallieren.</para>
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                </sect1>
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                <sect1>
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                        <title>Customising the Desktop</title>
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                        <para>Ubuntu and its derivatives can be customised through a Graphical User Interface or a Command Line Interface.</para>
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                        <para>The graphical tools for Ubuntu are available as menu options in
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                        the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> menu. Point to
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                        <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis> on the
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                        <emphasis role="strong">System menu</emphasis> to view the tools.
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                        </para>
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                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
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                                <para>The System - Preferences menu allows users to customise their own
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                                desktop environment in a way that may differ from other users on the same
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                                computer. In contrast, applications on the System - Administration menu
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                                will make changes to the computer that will affect all users.</para></note>
 
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                        <title>Anpassung des Desktops</title>
 
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                        <para>Ubuntu und seine Derivate können per grafischer Benutzungsoberfläche oder über die Kommandozeile angepasst werden.</para>
 
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                        <para>Die grafischen Werkzeuge für Ubuntu erreichen Sie über Menü-Einträge im Menü  <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>. Gehen Sie zu <emphasis role="strong">Einstellungen</emphasis> im <emphasis role="strong">System-Menü</emphasis>, um die Werkzeuge zu sehen.</para>
 
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                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Hinweis:</emphasis></title>
 
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                                <para>Das Menü System - Einstellungen erlaubt es dem Anwender die eigene Desktop-Umgebung derart anzupassen, dass sie sich von denen anderer Nutzer des gleichen Computers unterscheidet. Im Gegensatz dazu führen die Anwendungen im Menü System - Systemverwaltung zu Veränderungen für den Computer, die alle Anwender betreffen.</para></note>
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                                <sect2>
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                                <title>Changing the Background</title>
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                                <para>The desktop background is the image or colour applied to your
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                                desktop. You can change the default
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                                <emphasis role="strong">Simple Ubuntu</emphasis> background.
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                                To change the background of the desktop:</para>
 
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                                <title>Austausch des Desktop-Hintergrunds</title>
 
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                                <para>Das Bild oder die Farbe, die Ihren Desktop ausfüllt ist der Desktop-Hintergrund. Sie können den vorgegebenen Hintergrund <emphasis role="strong">Simple Ubuntu</emphasis> austauschen. Um den Desktop-Hintergrund auszutauschen,</para>
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                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
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                                        <listitem>
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                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
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                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis>
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                                                and then click <emphasis role="strong">Appearance</emphasis>. 
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                                                The <emphasis role="strong">
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                                                Appearance Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box
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                                                opens.</para>
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                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Appearance Preferences Dialogue Box</emphasis></title>
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                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
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                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_001.png" format="PNG" />
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                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
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                                                </figure>
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                                                <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
94
 
                                                <para>You can also right-click the desktop and select
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                                                <emphasis role="strong">Change Desktop Background</emphasis>
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                                                to open the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences
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                                                </emphasis> dialogue box.</para></tip>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                        <listitem>
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                                                <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences
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                                                </emphasis> dialogue box, select a desktop
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                                                wallpaper from the available wallpapers. 
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                                                The background changes immediately.</para>
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                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Changing Desktop Wallpaper</emphasis></title>
105
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
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                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_002.png" format="PNG" />
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                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
108
 
                                                </figure>
109
 
                                        <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
110
 
                                                <para>To view the name of the wallpaper, move the pointer over its name.
111
 
                                                </para></tip>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                        <listitem>
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                                                <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> in
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                                                the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis>
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                                                dialogue box to apply the changes.</para>
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                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Applying Preference Change</emphasis></title>
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                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
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                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_003.png" format="PNG" />
 
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                                                <para>Klicken Sie im Menü <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> auf <emphasis role="strong">Einstellungen</emphasis> und dort auf <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild</emphasis>. Es öffnet sich das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild-Einstellungen</emphasis>.</para>
 
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                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Aufruf des Dialogfensters Erscheinungsbild-Einstellungen</emphasis></title>
 
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                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
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                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_001.png" format="PNG"/>
 
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                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
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                                                </figure>
 
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                                                <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Gut zu wissen:</emphasis></title>
 
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                                                <para>Sie können auf den Desktop auch rechtsklicken und den Eintrag <emphasis role="strong">Desktop-Hintergrund ändern</emphasis> auswählen, um das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild-Einstellungen</emphasis> zu öffnen.</para></tip>
 
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                                        </listitem>
 
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                                        <listitem>
 
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                                                <para>Wählen Sie im Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild-Einstellungen</emphasis> ein Hintergrundbild aus den vorhandenen Hintergrundbildern. Der Hintergrund wechselt umgehend.</para>
 
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                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Wechsel des Desktop-Hintergrunds</emphasis></title>
 
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                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
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                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_002.png" format="PNG"/>
 
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                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
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                                                </figure>
 
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                                        <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Gut zu wissen:</emphasis></title>
 
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                                                <para>Um den Namen des Hintergrundbildes zu erfahren, führen Sie den Mauszeiger auf die Miniatur-Abbildung im Dialogfenster.</para></tip>
 
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                                        </listitem>
 
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                                        <listitem>
 
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                                                <para>Klicken Sie im Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild-Einstellungen</emphasis> auf <emphasis role="strong">Schließen</emphasis> um die Änderungen anzuwenden.</para>
 
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                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Wechsel der Einstellungen</emphasis></title>
 
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                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
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                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_003.png" format="PNG"/>
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                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
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                                                </figure>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                </orderedlist>
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                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Adding a New Wallpaper</emphasis></para>
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                                <para>Apart from the wallpapers available with the Ubuntu desktop,
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                                you can download additional high-quality wallpapers and add them to
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                                the available wallpapers list in the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences
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                                </emphasis> dialogue box. To do this:
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                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
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                                        <listitem>
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                                                <para>Open the Web site
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                                                <ulink url="http://art.gnome.org/">http://art.gnome.org/</ulink>
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                                                and click <emphasis role="strong">Backgrounds</emphasis>.</para>
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                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Opening Wallpaper Source</emphasis></title>
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                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
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                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_004.png" format="PNG" />
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                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
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                                                </figure>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                        <listitem>
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                                                <para>Download the wallpaper of your choice. During the
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                                                download, you can view the screen resolutions available for the
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                                                selected wallpaper. You should download and save the version of your chosen wallpaper 
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                                                that matches the screen resolution of your computer.</para>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                        <listitem>
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                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
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                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis>
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                                                and then click <emphasis role="strong">Appearance
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                                                </emphasis>. The <emphasis role="strong">
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                                                Appearance Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box
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                                                opens.</para>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                        <listitem>
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                                                <para>Click the <emphasis role="strong">Background</emphasis> tab and
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                                                then click <emphasis role="strong">Add</emphasis>.
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                                                The <emphasis role="strong">Add Wallpaper</emphasis>
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                                                dialogue box opens.</para>
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                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Adding a New Wallpaper</emphasis></title>
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                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
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                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_005.png" format="PNG" />
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                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
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                                                </figure>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                        <listitem>
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                                                <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Add Wallpaper</emphasis>
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                                                dialogue box, select the downloaded image and
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                                                click <emphasis role="strong">Open</emphasis>.</para>
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                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting Downloaded Wallpaper</emphasis></title>
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                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
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                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_006.png" format="PNG" />
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                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
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                                                </figure>
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                                                <para>This step adds the image as new wallpaper.</para>
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                                        </listitem>
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                                        <listitem>
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                                                <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> in
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                                                the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis>
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                                                dialogue box to accept the changes. You can now
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                                                view the new desktop background.</para>
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                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Added Wallpaper</emphasis></title>
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                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
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                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_007.png" format="PNG" />
 
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                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Hinzufügen eines neuen Hintergrundbildes</emphasis></para>
 
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                                <para>Zusätzlich zu den für Ubuntu schon von vornherein vorhandenen Hintergrundbildern können Sie weitere qualitativ hochwertige Hintergrundbilder aus dem Internet herunterladen und sie mit Hilfe des Dialogfensters <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild-Einstellungen</emphasis> zu der Liste der vorhandenen hinzufügen. Um dies zu tun<orderedlist numeration="arabic">
 
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                                        <listitem>
 
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                                                <para>Rufen Sie die Webseite <ulink url="http://art.gnome.org/">http://art.gnome.org/</ulink> auf und klicken auf <emphasis role="strong">Backgrounds</emphasis>.</para>
 
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                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Aufruf einer Quelle für Hintergrundbilder</emphasis></title>
 
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                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
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                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_004.png" format="PNG"/>
 
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                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
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                                                </figure>
 
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                                        </listitem>
 
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                                        <listitem>
 
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                                                <para>Laden Sie sich ein Hintergrundbild Ihrer Wahl herunter. Zum Download erhalten Sie die Reihe der Auflösungen, in der dieses Hintergrundbild vorliegt. Sie sollten das Hintergrundbild in der Auflösung herunterladen, die zur Auflösung Ihres Computers passt.</para>
 
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                                        </listitem>
 
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                                        <listitem>
 
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                                                <para>Klicken Sie im Menü <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> auf <emphasis role="strong">Einstellungen</emphasis> und dort auf <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild</emphasis>. Es öffnet sich das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild-Einstellungen</emphasis>.</para>
 
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                                        </listitem>
 
106
                                        <listitem>
 
107
                                                <para>Klicken Sie auf den Reiter <emphasis role="strong">Hintergrund</emphasis> und dann auf <emphasis role="strong">Hinzufügen</emphasis>. Das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Hintergrund hinzufügen</emphasis> öffnet sich.</para>
 
108
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Hinzufügen eines neuen Hintergrundbildes</emphasis></title>
 
109
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
110
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_005.png" format="PNG"/>
 
111
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
112
                                                </figure>
 
113
                                        </listitem>
 
114
                                        <listitem>
 
115
                                                <para>Im Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Hintergrund hinzufügen</emphasis> wählen Sie das herunter geladene Bild und klicken auf <emphasis role="strong">Öffnen</emphasis>.</para>
 
116
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Auswahl des heruntergeladenen Hintergrundbildes</emphasis></title>
 
117
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
118
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_006.png" format="PNG"/>
 
119
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
120
                                                </figure>
 
121
                                                <para>Dieser Schritt übernimmt das Bild als ein neues Hintergrundbild.</para>
 
122
                                        </listitem>
 
123
                                        <listitem>
 
124
                                                <para>Klicken Sie im Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild-Einstellungen</emphasis> auf <emphasis role="strong">Schließen</emphasis> um die Änderungen zu bestätigen. Jetzt können Sie das neue Hintergrundbild auf Ihrem Desktop sehen.</para>
 
125
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Hinzugefügtes Hintergrundbild</emphasis></title>
 
126
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
127
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_007.png" format="PNG"/>
184
128
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
185
129
                                                </figure>
186
130
                                        </listitem>
187
131
                                </orderedlist>
188
132
                                </para>
189
 
                                <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to know:</emphasis></title>
190
 
                                <para>You can, of course, use a picture from any other source to use as your desktop
191
 
                                background. Many popular online photo collaboration sites allow visitors to 
192
 
                                download and use their content for personal use. Many people also use their own
193
 
                                digital photographs as backgrounds.</para></tip>
194
 
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Changing the Colour of the
195
 
                                Background</emphasis></para>
196
 
                                <para>To change the colour of the background:
197
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
198
 
                                        <listitem>
199
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
200
 
                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis>
201
 
                                                and then click <emphasis role="strong">Appearance</emphasis> 
202
 
                                                to open the <emphasis role="strong"> 
203
 
                                                Appearance Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box.
204
 
                                                </para>
205
 
                                        </listitem>
206
 
                                        <listitem>
207
 
                                                <para>Click the <emphasis role="strong">Background</emphasis> tab 
208
 
                                                and select the wallpaper <emphasis role="strong">No
209
 
                                                Wallpaper</emphasis>. You can view colours only if you have
210
 
                                                not set any desktop wallpaper.</para>
211
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Changing Background Colour</emphasis></title>
212
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
213
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_008.png" format="PNG" />
214
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
215
 
                                                </figure>
216
 
                                        </listitem>
217
 
                                        <listitem>
218
 
                                                <para>The <emphasis role="strong">Colours</emphasis>
219
 
                                                box provides three types of background:
220
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Solid colour, Horizontal gradient</emphasis>
221
 
                                                and <emphasis role="strong">Vertical gradient</emphasis>.
222
 
                                                Select the desktop colour of your choice and then
223
 
                                                click the colour chip next to the <emphasis role="strong">
224
 
                                                Colours</emphasis> box. The
225
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Pick a Colour</emphasis> dialogue
226
 
                                                box opens.</para>
227
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting Colour Option</emphasis></title>
228
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
229
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_009.png" format="PNG" />
230
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
231
 
                                                </figure>
232
 
                                        </listitem>
233
 
                                        <listitem>
234
 
                                                <para>Select a colour or the attributes of a colour such as hue
235
 
                                                and saturation to create a colour of your choice. Click
236
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">OK</emphasis>. The desktop reflects the new settings immediately.</para>
237
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Specifying Colour</emphasis></title>
238
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
239
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_010.png" format="PNG" />
240
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
241
 
                                                </figure>
242
 
                                        </listitem>
243
 
                                        <listitem>
244
 
                                                <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> to
245
 
                                                close the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance
246
 
                                                Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box.</para>
247
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Changed Background Colour</emphasis></title>
248
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
249
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_011.png" format="PNG" />
 
133
                                <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Gut zu wissen:</emphasis></title>
 
134
                                <para>Sie können natürlich auch ein anderes Bild aus irgendeiner anderen Quelle als Desktop Hintergrund verwenden. Viele beliebte Foto-Community-Websites erlauben dem Besucher das Herunterladen von Bildern und die private Nutzung. Viele Leute verwenden auch Ihre eigenen digitalen Fotos als Hintergründe.</para></tip>
 
135
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Austausch der Hintergrundfarbe</emphasis></para>
 
136
                                <para>Um die Farbe des Desktop-Hintergrunds auszutauschen<orderedlist numeration="arabic">
 
137
                                        <listitem>
 
138
                                                <para>Klicken Sie im Menü <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> auf <emphasis role="strong">Einstellungen</emphasis> und dann dort auf <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild</emphasis>, um das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild-Einstellungen</emphasis> zu öffenen.</para>
 
139
                                        </listitem>
 
140
                                        <listitem>
 
141
                                                <para>Klicken Sie auf den Reiter <emphasis role="strong">Hintergrund</emphasis> und wählen dann den Hintergrund <emphasis role="strong">Kein Hintergrund</emphasis>. Sie können nur dann Farben sehen, wenn Sie keinen Desktop-Hintergrund ausgewählt haben.</para>
 
142
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Austausch der Hintergrundfarbe</emphasis></title>
 
143
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
144
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_008.png" format="PNG"/>
 
145
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
146
                                                </figure>
 
147
                                        </listitem>
 
148
                                        <listitem>
 
149
                                                <para>Die Box <emphasis role="strong">Farben</emphasis> bietet drei Arten von Hintergründen an: <emphasis role="strong">Einfarbig, Horizontaler Verlauf</emphasis> und <emphasis role="strong">Vertical Verlauf</emphasis>. Wählen Sie die Desktop-Farbart Ihrer Wahl und klicken dann den Farb-Knopf neben der Box <emphasis role="strong">Farben</emphasis>. Es öffnet sich das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Wählen Sie eine Farbe</emphasis>.</para>
 
150
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Auswahl der Farbart</emphasis></title>
 
151
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
152
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_009.png" format="PNG"/>
 
153
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
154
                                                </figure>
 
155
                                        </listitem>
 
156
                                        <listitem>
 
157
                                                <para>Wählen Sie eine Farbe oder die Eigenschaft einer Farbe, wie Farbton und Sättigung um eine Farbe Ihrer Wahl zu erstellen. Klicken Sie <emphasis role="strong">OK</emphasis>. Der Desktop stellt die neuen Einstellungen umgehend dar.</para>
 
158
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Festlegen einer Farbe</emphasis></title>
 
159
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
160
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_010.png" format="PNG"/>
 
161
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
162
                                                </figure>
 
163
                                        </listitem>
 
164
                                        <listitem>
 
165
                                                <para>Klicken Sie im Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild-Einstellungen</emphasis> auf <emphasis role="strong">Schließen</emphasis> um es zu schließen.</para>
 
166
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Die geänderte Hintergrundfarbe</emphasis></title>
 
167
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
168
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_011.png" format="PNG"/>
250
169
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
251
170
                                                </figure>
252
171
                                        </listitem>
254
173
                                </para>
255
174
                        </sect2>
256
175
                        <sect2>
257
 
                                <title>Customising the Theme (Buttons &amp; icons etc)</title>
258
 
                                <para>The desktop theme controls the visual appearance of the
259
 
                                buttons, scroll bars, icons, panels, borders etc.
260
 
                                Ubuntu provides a number of themes you can use to change the 
261
 
                                appearance of the GNOME desktop and applications.</para>
262
 
                                <para>To select a theme for your desktop:
263
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
264
 
                                        <listitem>
265
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
266
 
                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis>
267
 
                                                and click <emphasis role="strong">Appearance</emphasis>.
268
 
                                                The <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis>
269
 
                                                dialogue box opens.</para>
270
 
                                        </listitem>
271
 
                                        <listitem>
272
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Theme</emphasis> tab,
273
 
                                                select the theme of your choice. The desktop reflects the
274
 
                                                theme automatically. To customise your theme further, click
275
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Customise</emphasis>. The
276
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Customise Theme</emphasis> dialogue
277
 
                                                box opens.</para>
278
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Customising Desktop Theme</emphasis></title>
279
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
280
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_012.png" format="PNG" />
281
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
282
 
                                                </figure>
283
 
                                        </listitem>
284
 
                                        <listitem>
285
 
                                                <para>The default selection is <emphasis role="strong">
286
 
                                                Controls</emphasis> tab. The setting on the
287
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Controls</emphasis> tabbed page
288
 
                                                defines the visual appearance of windows, panels and applets.
289
 
                                                Select a control from the <emphasis role="strong">Controls</emphasis>
290
 
                                                list. You can see an immediate change in the appearance of
291
 
                                                the open windows.</para>
292
 
                                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
293
 
                                                <para>You can customise the following objects on the screen:</para>
294
 
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Window:</emphasis> A
295
 
                                                rectangular area of the screen with a border and a title bar at
296
 
                                                the top. All graphical applications run inside windows.</para>
297
 
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Panel:</emphasis> An area on
298
 
                                                the desktop from where you can access information
299
 
                                                such as date and time. You can also launch applications and
300
 
                                                add or remove objects from panels. The Ubuntu desktop
301
 
                                                contains two panels, the top edge panel at the top of the
302
 
                                                screen and the bottom edge panel at the bottom of the
303
 
                                                screen.</para>
304
 
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Applet:</emphasis> A small
305
 
                                                application whose user interface resides within a panel.</para>
306
 
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Window Border:</emphasis> 
307
 
                                                The border that appears around windows.  It has a frame at the top of the window
308
 
                                                that contains the name of the application and the edges that allow you to resize the window.</para>
309
 
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Icon:</emphasis> A graphical
310
 
                                                symbol for the applications and options on the panels and
311
 
                                                windows.</para></note>
312
 
                                                <para>Similarly, you can customise the background and text
313
 
                                                colour of your windows, input boxes and selected items by
314
 
                                                configuring the settings on the <emphasis role="strong">Colours</emphasis>
315
 
                                                tab.</para>
316
 
                                                <para>If you want to customise your window borders and icons,
317
 
                                                click the <emphasis role="strong">Window Border</emphasis>
318
 
                                                and <emphasis role="strong">Icons</emphasis> tabs in the
319
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Customise Theme</emphasis> dialogue
320
 
                                                box.</para>
321
 
                                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
322
 
                                                <para>Ubuntu provides additional options to customise your themes. You can
323
 
                                                download more controls, window borders and icons from the
324
 
                                                Web site
325
 
                                                <ulink url="http://art.gnome.org">http://art.gnome.org</ulink>
326
 
                                                and save it at any location on your computer. While customising the theme, click
327
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Install</emphasis> in the
328
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis>
329
 
                                                dialogue box. The <emphasis role="strong">Select Theme</emphasis>
330
 
                                                dialogue box opens, and you can select the
331
 
                                                downloaded objects.</para></note>
332
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting Theme Controls</emphasis></title>
333
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
334
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_013.png" format="PNG" />
335
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
336
 
                                                </figure>
337
 
                                        </listitem>
338
 
                                        <listitem>
339
 
                                                <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> in the
340
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Customise Theme</emphasis> dialogue
341
 
                                                box. To save the theme, click <emphasis role="strong">Save
342
 
                                                As</emphasis> in the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance
343
 
                                                Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box. The
344
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Save Theme As</emphasis> dialogue
345
 
                                                box opens.</para>
346
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Saving Modified Theme</emphasis></title>
347
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
348
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_014.png" format="PNG" />
349
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
350
 
                                                </figure>
351
 
                                        </listitem>
352
 
                                        <listitem>
353
 
                                                <para>Provide a name to the theme in the
354
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Name</emphasis> box and a
355
 
                                                description, if you want, in the
356
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Description</emphasis> box.
357
 
                                                Click <emphasis role="strong">Save</emphasis>.</para>
358
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Specifying Theme Name and Description</emphasis></title>
359
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
360
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_015.png" format="PNG" />
361
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
362
 
                                                </figure>
363
 
                                        </listitem>
364
 
                                        <listitem>
365
 
                                                <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis>
366
 
                                                dialogue box, click <emphasis role="strong">
367
 
                                                Close</emphasis>.</para>
 
176
                                <title>Anpassung des Themas (Buttons &amp; Symbole etc.)</title>
 
177
                                <para>Das Desktop-Thema ist verantwortlich für Erscheinung der Buttons, Laufbalken, Symbole, Panels, Ränder etc. Ubuntu bietet Ihnen eine Anzahl an Themen, die Sie nutzen können, um das Erscheinungsbild des GNOME Desktops und der Anwendungen zu verändern.</para>
 
178
                                <para>Um ein Thema für Ihren Desktop auszuwählen<orderedlist numeration="arabic">
 
179
                                        <listitem>
 
180
                                                <para>Klicken Sie im Menü <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> auf <emphasis role="strong">Einstellungen</emphasis> und dort auf <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild</emphasis>. Es öffnet sich das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild-Einstellungen</emphasis>.</para>
 
181
                                        </listitem>
 
182
                                        <listitem>
 
183
                                                <para>Wählen Sie im Reiter <emphasis role="strong">Thema</emphasis> das Thema Ihrer Wahl. Der Desktop stellt das Thema umgehend dar. Klicken Sie auf <emphasis role="strong">Anpassen</emphasis>, um Ihr Thema weiter anzupassen. Das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Thema anpassen</emphasis> öffnet sich.</para>
 
184
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Anpassung des Desktop-Themas</emphasis></title>
 
185
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
186
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_012.png" format="PNG"/>
 
187
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
188
                                                </figure>
 
189
                                        </listitem>
 
190
                                        <listitem>
 
191
                                                <para>Die Standard-Auswahl ist der Reiter <emphasis role="strong">Fensterinhalt</emphasis>. Die Einstellungen des Reiters <emphasis role="strong">Fensterinhalt</emphasis> legen die Erscheinungsform von Fenstern, Panels und Applets fest. Wählen Sie eine Erscheinungsform aus der Liste <emphasis role="strong">Fensterinhalt</emphasis>. Sie können den umgehenden Wechsel der Erscheinungsform der offenen Fesnter sehen.</para>
 
192
                                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Hinweis:</emphasis></title>
 
193
                                                <para>Sie können die folgenden Bildschrim-Elemente anpassen:</para>
 
194
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Fenster:</emphasis> Ein rechteckiger Bereich am Bildschirm mit einem Rahmen und  einer Titelzeile an der Oberseite. Alle grafischen Anwendungen laufen innerhalb von Fenstern.</para>
 
195
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Panel:</emphasis> Eine Leiste auf dem Desktop, von der Sie Information wie Datum und Zeit ablesen können. Sie können außerdem Anwendungen von Panels aufrufen und Elemente hinzufügen oder entfernen. Der Ubuntu Desktop beinhaltet zwei Panels: Das obere Panel am oberen Rand des Bildschirms und das untere Panel am unteren Rand.</para>
 
196
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Applet:</emphasis> Eine kleine Anwendung, deren Benutzerschnittstelle sich innerhalb eines Panels befindet.</para>
 
197
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Fensterrand:</emphasis> Der Rand, der sich um Fenster herum befindet. Er weist eine Leiste an der Oberseite des Fensters auf, die den Namen der Anwendung beinhaltet und die Ecken, die eine Größen-Veränderung des Fensters ermöglichen.</para>
 
198
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Symbol:</emphasis> Ein grafisches Zeichen für eine Applikation oder eine Option auf Panels und in Fenstern.</para></note>
 
199
                                                <para>Auf ähnliche Art können Sie den Hintergrund und die Textfarbe Ihrer Fenster, Eingabefelder und Anwahlbereich anpassen, indem Sie die Einstellungen im Reiter <emphasis role="strong">Farben</emphasis> ändern.</para>
 
200
                                                <para>Wenn Sie die Fensterrahmen und Symbole ändern möchten, klicken Sie auf die Reiter <emphasis role="strong">Fensterrahmen</emphasis> und <emphasis role="strong">Symbole</emphasis> im Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Thema anpassen</emphasis>.</para>
 
201
                                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Hinweis:</emphasis></title>
 
202
                                                <para>Ubuntu bietet Ihnen weitere Möglichkeiten, Ihr Thema anzupassen. Sie können weitere Steuerelemente, Fensterrahmen und Symbole von der Website <ulink url="http://art.gnome.org">http://art.gnome.org</ulink> herunterladen und irgendwo auf Ihrem Computer abspeichern. Klicken Sie im Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild-Einstellungen</emphasis> zum Anpassen des Themas auf <emphasis role="strong">Installieren</emphasis>. Das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Thema auswählen</emphasis> öffnet sich und Sie können das heruntergeladene Objekt auswählen.</para></note>
 
203
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Auswahl von Steuerelementen</emphasis></title>
 
204
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
205
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_013.png" format="PNG"/>
 
206
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
207
                                                </figure>
 
208
                                        </listitem>
 
209
                                        <listitem>
 
210
                                                <para>Klicken Sie im Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Thema anpassen</emphasis> auf <emphasis role="strong">Schließen</emphasis>. Klicken Sie im Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild-Einstellungen</emphasis> auf <emphasis role="strong">Speichern unter</emphasis>, um  das Thema zu speichern. Das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Thema Speichern unter</emphasis> öffnet sich.</para>
 
211
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Speichern eines veränderten Themas</emphasis></title>
 
212
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
213
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_014.png" format="PNG"/>
 
214
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
215
                                                </figure>
 
216
                                        </listitem>
 
217
                                        <listitem>
 
218
                                                <para>Geben Sie dem Thema einen Namen im Feld <emphasis role="strong">Name</emphasis> und, wenn Sie möchten, auch eine Beschreibung im Feld <emphasis role="strong">Beschreibung</emphasis>. Klicken Sie <emphasis role="strong">Speichern</emphasis>.</para>
 
219
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Angabe eines Namens und einer Beschreibung für ein Thema</emphasis></title>
 
220
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
221
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_015.png" format="PNG"/>
 
222
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
223
                                                </figure>
 
224
                                        </listitem>
 
225
                                        <listitem>
 
226
                                                <para>Klicken Sie im Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild-Einstellungen</emphasis> auf <emphasis role="strong">Schließen</emphasis>.</para>
368
227
                                        </listitem>
369
228
                                </orderedlist>
370
229
                                </para>
371
 
                                <para>If you open a menu or window, you can see the changes in their appearance.</para>
372
 
                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Viewing an Application in Modified Theme</emphasis></title>
 
230
                                <para>Wenn Sie ein Menü oder ein Fenster öffnen, sehen Sie die Änderung in der Darstellung.</para>
 
231
                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Eine Anwendung mit verändertem Thema</emphasis></title>
373
232
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
374
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_016.png" format="PNG" />
 
233
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_016.png" format="PNG"/>
375
234
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
376
235
                                </figure>
377
 
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Installing New Themes</emphasis></para>
378
 
                                <para>You can also download other Ubuntu-compatible themes from Ubuntu's recommended source.
379
 
                                To install these themes:
380
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
381
 
                                        <listitem>
382
 
                                                <para>Open the Web site and click <emphasis role="strong">
383
 
                                                DesktopThemes</emphasis>.</para>
384
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Opening Theme Source</emphasis></title>
385
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
386
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_017.png" format="PNG" />
387
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
388
 
                                                </figure>
389
 
                                        </listitem>
390
 
                                        <listitem>
391
 
                                                <para>Download a theme of your choice. Select any theme and
392
 
                                                follow the instructions as they appear.</para>
393
 
                                        </listitem>
394
 
                                        <listitem>
395
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
396
 
                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis>
397
 
                                                and click <emphasis role="strong">Appearance</emphasis>.
398
 
                                                The <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis>
399
 
                                                dialogue box opens.</para>
400
 
                                        </listitem>
401
 
                                        <listitem>
402
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Theme</emphasis> tab, 
403
 
                                                click <emphasis role="strong">Install</emphasis>. 
404
 
                                                The <emphasis role="strong">Select Theme</emphasis>
405
 
                                                dialogue box opens.</para>
406
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Installing New Theme</emphasis></title>
407
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
408
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_018.png" format="PNG" />
409
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
410
 
                                                </figure>
411
 
                                        </listitem>
412
 
                                        <listitem>
413
 
                                                <para>Select the downloaded theme and click
414
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Open</emphasis>.</para>
415
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting Downloaded Theme</emphasis></title>
416
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
417
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_019.png" format="PNG" />
418
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
419
 
                                                </figure>
420
 
                                        </listitem>
421
 
                                        <listitem>
422
 
                                                <para>You can apply a new theme or retain the current theme.
423
 
                                                Click <emphasis role="strong">Apply New Theme</emphasis>
424
 
                                                to apply the new theme. The screen will reflect the new theme
425
 
                                                immediately.</para>
426
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Applying New Theme</emphasis></title>
427
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
428
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_020.png" format="PNG" />
429
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
430
 
                                                </figure>
431
 
                                        </listitem>
432
 
                                        <listitem>
433
 
                                                <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> in the
434
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Appearance Preferences</emphasis>
435
 
                                                dialogue box.</para>
436
 
                                                <para>If you open any menu or window, it will reflect the
437
 
                                                selected theme.</para>
438
 
                                                <figure id="fig:chess-blueheart"><title><emphasis role="italic">Chess in Blue Heart Theme</emphasis></title>
439
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
440
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_021.png" format="PNG" />
441
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
442
 
                                                </figure>
443
 
                                        </listitem>
444
 
                                </orderedlist>
445
 
                                </para>
446
 
                        </sect2>
447
 
                        <sect2>
448
 
                                <title>Customising a Screensaver</title>
449
 
                                <para>A screensaver displays (often moving) images on the screen when
450
 
                                your computer is switched on but not in use. To go back to the
451
 
                                workspace, you can move the mouse or press any key on the
452
 
                                keyboard.</para>
453
 
                                <para>You can choose a screensaver and customise it. To
454
 
                                customise a screensaver:
455
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
456
 
                                        <listitem>
457
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
458
 
                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis>
459
 
                                                and click <emphasis role="strong">Screensaver</emphasis>.
460
 
                                                The <emphasis role="strong">Screensaver
461
 
                                                Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box opens.</para>
462
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Screensaver Preferences Dialogue Box</emphasis></title>
463
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
464
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_022.png" format="PNG" />
465
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
466
 
                                                </figure>
467
 
                                        </listitem>
468
 
                                        <listitem>
469
 
                                                <para>Select the screensaver from the list of available
470
 
                                                screensavers. You can preview the screensaver in the right pane.
471
 
                                                </para>
472
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Customising Screensaver Settings</emphasis></title>
473
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
474
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_023.png" format="PNG" />
475
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
476
 
                                                </figure>
477
 
                                        </listitem>
478
 
                                        <listitem>
479
 
                                                <para>The <emphasis role="strong">Regard the computer as
480
 
                                                idle after</emphasis> slider specifies when a screensaver starts
481
 
                                                to work if the computer is not in use. The
482
 
                                                default time is set to 10 minutes. You can use this slider to
483
 
                                                select how long the computer needs to be idle before the
484
 
                                                screensaver activates.</para>
485
 
                                        </listitem>
486
 
                                        <listitem>
487
 
                                                <para>To prevent any tampering of your computer in your
488
 
                                                absence, you can automatically lock your screen the moment
489
 
                                                the screensaver activates. Locking requires users to type their
490
 
                                                password to reactivate the desktop. Select the
491
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Lock screen when screensaver is
492
 
                                                active</emphasis> check box to lock the screen when the
493
 
                                                screensaver starts.</para>
494
 
                                        </listitem>
495
 
                                        <listitem>
496
 
                                                <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis>.</para>
497
 
                                        </listitem>
498
 
                                </orderedlist>
499
 
                                </para>
500
 
                                <para>The selected screensaver displays when the computer is idle
501
 
                                for the specified period.</para>
502
 
                        </sect2>
503
 
                        <sect2>
504
 
                                <title>Customising the Screen Resolution</title>
505
 
                                <para>The screen resolution determines how large or small an item
506
 
                                looks on the screen. To modify the screen resolution of the GNOME
507
 
                                desktop:
508
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
509
 
                                        <listitem>
510
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
511
 
                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Preferences</emphasis>
512
 
                                                and then click <emphasis role="strong">Screen
513
 
                                                Resolution</emphasis>. The <emphasis role="strong">Screen
514
 
                                                Resolution Preferences</emphasis> dialogue box opens.</para>
515
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Screen Resolution Preferences Dialogue Box</emphasis></title>
516
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
517
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_024.png" format="PNG" />
518
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
519
 
                                                </figure>
520
 
                                        </listitem>
521
 
                                        <listitem>
522
 
                                                <para>The default resolution is <emphasis role="strong">
523
 
                                                1280x1024</emphasis>. You can change the resolution in the
524
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Resolution</emphasis> box.</para>
525
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Customising Screen Resolution</emphasis></title>
526
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
527
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_025.png" format="PNG" />
528
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
529
 
                                                </figure>
530
 
                                        </listitem>
531
 
                                        <listitem>
532
 
                                                <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Apply</emphasis>. The
533
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Keep Resolution</emphasis>
534
 
                                                dialogue box opens, prompting you to confirm settings or use
535
 
                                                the previous resolution and revert to the original settings. Click
536
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Keep resolution</emphasis> to apply
537
 
                                                new changes.</para>
538
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Resolution Confirmation Dialogue Box</emphasis></title>
539
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
540
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_026.png" format="PNG" />
541
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
542
 
                                                </figure>
543
 
                                        </listitem>
544
 
                                </orderedlist>
545
 
                                </para>
546
 
                                <para>The screen resolution will change.</para>
547
 
                        </sect2>
548
 
                </sect1>
549
 
                <sect1>
550
 
                        <title>3D Effects</title>
551
 
                        <para>A computer screen is two-dimensional (2D) in nature and until recently most
552
 
                        applications were developed with a 2D layout.</para>
553
 
                        <para>However, advancements in technology fuelled the demand for more life-like on screen visuals,
554
 
                        as in three-dimensional (3D) modelling and games. The operating system
555
 
                        needs to perform complex calculations to display 3D images in 2D. Consequently, to
556
 
                        reduce the burden on the operating system and increase the speed of applications, 3D
557
 
                        accelerator cards were developed, which use the graphics processor on the graphics
558
 
                        card instead of consuming valuable CPU resources. Almost all modern graphics cards
559
 
                        have a built-in acceleration to display 3D.</para>
560
 
                        <para>Ubuntu can utilize the 3D capabilities of a graphics card for desktop effects. An example of
561
 
                        these effects are the placement of the desktops on a rotating cube, windows have shadows, 
562
 
                        and motion effects.</para>
563
 
                        <para>The effects are enabled by default and can be controlled from the <emphasis role='strong'>Appearance</emphasis> menu. From here the 
564
 
                        desktop effects can either be completely disabled or enabled. The number of effects can be controlled via the <emphasis role='strong'>normal effects</emphasis> 
565
 
                        and <emphasis role='strong'>extra effects</emphasis> setting.</para>
566
 
                        <para>If a graphics card does not have 3D capabilities or support for 3D is missing from the Linux drivers for the card, you will be notified that <emphasis role='strong'>Desktop effects could not be enabled</emphasis>.</para>
567
 
                </sect1>
568
 
                <sect1>
569
 
                        <title>Working with Files Using Nautilus</title>
570
 
                        <para>The Nautilus file manager in Ubuntu provides a simple and
571
 
                        integrated way to manage files and applications. It is a GNOME
572
 
                        application and is configured with other applications in Ubuntu.</para>
573
 
                        <sect2>
574
 
                                <title>Features of Nautilus</title>
575
 
                                <para>The Nautilus file manager allows you to organise files into
576
 
                                folders and perform tasks such as:</para>
 
236
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Installation neuer Themen</emphasis></para>
 
237
                                <para>Sie können darüber hinaus andere mit Ubuntu kompatible Themen von Quellen herunterladen, die von Ubuntu empfohlen sind. Um diese Themen zu installieren<orderedlist numeration="arabic">
 
238
                                        <listitem>
 
239
                                                <para>Rufen Sie die Webseite auf und klicken auf <emphasis role="strong"> DesktopThemes</emphasis>.</para>
 
240
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Öffnen der Themen-Sammlung</emphasis></title>
 
241
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
242
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_017.png" format="PNG"/>
 
243
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
244
                                                </figure>
 
245
                                        </listitem>
 
246
                                        <listitem>
 
247
                                                <para>Laden Sie ein Thema Ihrer Wahl herunter. Wählen Sie irgendein Thema und folgen Sie den Anweisungen, die nun erscheinen.</para>
 
248
                                        </listitem>
 
249
                                        <listitem>
 
250
                                                <para>Klicken Sie im Menü <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> auf <emphasis role="strong">Einstellungen</emphasis> und dort auf <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild</emphasis>. Es öffnet sich das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild-Einstellungen</emphasis>.</para>
 
251
                                        </listitem>
 
252
                                        <listitem>
 
253
                                                <para>Wählen Sie im Reiter <emphasis role="strong">Thema</emphasis> das Thema Ihrer Wahl. Das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Thema auswählen</emphasis> öffnet sich.</para>
 
254
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Installation neuer Themen</emphasis></title>
 
255
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
256
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_018.png" format="PNG"/>
 
257
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
258
                                                </figure>
 
259
                                        </listitem>
 
260
                                        <listitem>
 
261
                                                <para>Wählen Sie das heruntergeladene Thema und klicken auf <emphasis role="strong">Öffnen</emphasis>.</para>
 
262
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Auswahl des heruntergeladenen Themas</emphasis></title>
 
263
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
264
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_019.png" format="PNG"/>
 
265
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
266
                                                </figure>
 
267
                                        </listitem>
 
268
                                        <listitem>
 
269
                                                <para>Sie können das neue Thema verwenden, oder das alte Thema beibehalten. Klicken Sie auf <emphasis role="strong">Neues Thema verwenden</emphasis>, um das neue Thema zu verwenden. Der Bildschirm stellt das neue Thema umgehend dar.</para>
 
270
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Verwendung eines neuen Themas</emphasis></title>
 
271
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
272
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_020.png" format="PNG"/>
 
273
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
274
                                                </figure>
 
275
                                        </listitem>
 
276
                                        <listitem>
 
277
                                                <para>Klicken Sie im Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild-Einstellungen</emphasis> auf <emphasis role="strong">Schließen</emphasis>.</para>
 
278
                                                <para>Wenn Sie ein Menü oder ein Fenster öffnen, werden diese mit dem neuen Thema dargestellt.</para>
 
279
                                                <figure id="fig:chess-blueheart"><title><emphasis role="italic">Schach mit dem Thema Blue Heart </emphasis></title>
 
280
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
281
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_021.png" format="PNG"/>
 
282
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
283
                                                </figure>
 
284
                                        </listitem>
 
285
                                </orderedlist>
 
286
                                </para>
 
287
                        </sect2>
 
288
                        <sect2>
 
289
                                <title>Anpassung des Bildschirmschoners</title>
 
290
                                <para>Ein Bildschirmschoner zeigt (oftmals bewegte) Bilder am Bildschirm,  wenn Ihr Computer eingeschaltet aber nicht in Benutzung ist. Um zur Arbeitsfläche zurück zu kommen, können Sie die Maus bewegen oder irgendeine Taste auf der Tastatur drücken.</para>
 
291
                                <para>Sie können einen Bildschirmschoner auswählen und ihn anpassen. Um einen Bildschirmschoner anzupassen<orderedlist numeration="arabic">
 
292
                                        <listitem>
 
293
                                                <para>Klicken Sie im Menü <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> auf <emphasis role="strong">Einstellungen</emphasis> und dort auf <emphasis role="strong">Bildschirmschoner</emphasis>. Es öffnet sich das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Bildschirmschoner-Einstellungen</emphasis>.</para>
 
294
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Aufruf des Dialogfensters Bildschirmschoner-Einstellungen</emphasis></title>
 
295
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
296
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_022.png" format="PNG"/>
 
297
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
298
                                                </figure>
 
299
                                        </listitem>
 
300
                                        <listitem>
 
301
                                                <para>Wählen Sie einen Bildschirmschoner aus der Liste vorhandener Bildschirmschoner. Im rechten Abschnitt können Sie eine Vorschau des Bildschirmschoners sehen.</para>
 
302
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Anpassung des Bildschirmschoners</emphasis></title>
 
303
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
304
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_023.png" format="PNG"/>
 
305
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
306
                                                </figure>
 
307
                                        </listitem>
 
308
                                        <listitem>
 
309
                                                <para>Der Schieberegler <emphasis role="strong">Sitzung auf untätig setzen nach</emphasis> legt fest, ab welchem Zeitpunkt ein Bildschirmschoner starten soll, seit er nicht mehr in Benutzung ist. Die Standard-Zeit ist auf 10 Minuten gesetzt. Sie können diesen Schieberegler verwenden, um zu bestimmen, wie lange der Computer unbenutzt sein soll, bevor der Bildschirmschoner aktiviert wird.</para>
 
310
                                        </listitem>
 
311
                                        <listitem>
 
312
                                                <para>Um einen unzulässigen Zugriff auf Ihren Computer in Ihrer Abwesenheit zu verhindern, können Sie Ihren Bildschirm automatisch sperren lassen, sobald sich der Bildschrimschoner aktiviert. Zum Entsperren des Desktops ist vom Anwender die Eingabe seines Passwortes notwendig. Select the <emphasis role="strong">Lock screen when screensaver is active</emphasis> check box to lock the screen when the screensaver starts.</para>
 
313
                                        </listitem>
 
314
                                        <listitem>
 
315
                                                <para>Klicken Sie <emphasis role="strong">Schließen</emphasis>.</para>
 
316
                                        </listitem>
 
317
                                </orderedlist>
 
318
                                </para>
 
319
                                <para>Sobald der Computer für die festgelegte Zeit unbenutzt ist, startet der ausgewählte Bildschirmschoner.</para>
 
320
                        </sect2>
 
321
                        <sect2>
 
322
                                <title>Anpassung der Bildschirmauflösung</title>
 
323
                                <para>Die Bildschirmauflösung bestimmt, wie groß oder klein ein Objekt auf dem Bildschirm erscheint. Um die Bildschirmauflösung des GNOME Desktops zu ändern<orderedlist numeration="arabic">
 
324
                                        <listitem>
 
325
                                                <para>Klicken Sie im Menü <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> auf <emphasis role="strong">Einstellungen</emphasis> und dort auf <emphasis role="strong">Bildschirmauflösung</emphasis>. Es öffnet sich das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Bildschirmauflösung</emphasis>.</para>
 
326
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Aufruf des Dialogfensters Bildschirmauflösung</emphasis></title>
 
327
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
328
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_024.png" format="PNG"/>
 
329
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
330
                                                </figure>
 
331
                                        </listitem>
 
332
                                        <listitem>
 
333
                                                <para>Die Standard-Bildschirmauflösung ist <emphasis role="strong">1280x1024</emphasis>. Sie können die Auflösung im Feld <emphasis role="strong">Auflösung</emphasis>.</para>
 
334
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Anpassung der Bildschirmauflösung</emphasis></title>
 
335
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
336
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_025.png" format="PNG"/>
 
337
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
338
                                                </figure>
 
339
                                        </listitem>
 
340
                                        <listitem>
 
341
                                                <para>Klicken Sie <emphasis role="strong">Anwenden</emphasis>. Das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Auflösung beibehalten</emphasis> öffnet sich und erwartet entweder eine Bestätigung Ihrer Einstellung oder die Rücknahme und das Beibhalten  der ursprünglichen Einstellung. Klicken Sie <emphasis role="strong">Auflösung beibehalten</emphasis>, um die Änderungen zu verwenden.</para>
 
342
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Das Dialogfenster Auflösung beibehalten</emphasis></title>
 
343
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
344
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_026.png" format="PNG"/>
 
345
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
346
                                                </figure>
 
347
                                        </listitem>
 
348
                                </orderedlist>
 
349
                                </para>
 
350
                                <para>Die Bildschirmauflösung beibehalten ändert sich.</para>
 
351
                        </sect2>
 
352
                </sect1>
 
353
                <sect1>
 
354
                        <title>Visuelle Effekte</title>
 
355
                        <para>Ein Computer-Bildschirm ist natürlicherweise zweidimensional (2D) und bis heute sind die meisten Anwendungen auch mit einem 2D-Layout entwickelt.</para>
 
356
                        <para>Die technische Weiterentwicklung führt allerdings zu dem Wunsch nach lebensnäheren Darstellungen am Bildschirm wie bei 3D-Modellierung und 3D-Spielen. Das Betriebssystem muss aufwändige Berechnungen durchführen, um 3D-Bilder in 2D anzuzeigen. Um die Last auf das Betriebssystem zu verringern und die Anwendungen zu beschleunigen, wurden 3D-Beschleuniger-Karten entwickelt, welche den Grafik-Prozessor der Grafikkarte verwenden, statt wertvolle Ressourcen der CPU zu verbrauchen. Fast alle modernen Grafikkarten haben eine eingebaute 3D-Beschelunigung.</para>
 
357
                        <para>Ubuntu kann 3D-Fähigkeiten einer Grafikkarte für visuelle Effekte nutzen. Ein Beispiel für solche Effekte ist das Abbilden des Desktops auf einen drehenden Würfel, Fenster mit Schatten und Bewegungs-Effekte.</para>
 
358
                        <para>Die Effekte sind standardmäßig aktiviert und können über das Menü <emphasis role="strong">Erscheinungsbild</emphasis> gesteuert werden. Hier können die visuellen Effekte vollständig abgeschaltet oder eingeschaltet werden. Die Zahl der Effekte kann gesteuert werden über die Einstellungen <emphasis role="strong">Normal</emphasis> und <emphasis role="strong">Extra</emphasis>.</para>
 
359
                        <para>Wenn eine Grafikkarte keine 3D-Beschleunigung hat oder die 3D-Unterstützung von den Linux-Treibern für Ihre Karte nicht unterstützt wird, erhalten Sie die Meldung: <emphasis role="strong">Visuelle Effekte können nicht aktiviert werden</emphasis>.</para>
 
360
                </sect1>
 
361
                <sect1>
 
362
                        <title>Arbeit mit Dateien mittels Nautilus</title>
 
363
                        <para>Der Nautilus Dateimanager in Ubuntu stellt einen einfachen und einheitlichen Weg dar, Dateien und Anwendungen zu verwalten. Nautilus ist eine GNOME-Anwendung und zusammen mit anderen Anwendungen unter Ubuntu eingerichtet.</para>
 
364
                        <sect2>
 
365
                                <title>Merkmale von Nautilus</title>
 
366
                                <para>Der Nautilus Dateimanager ermöglicht Ihnen, Ihre Dateien mit Hilfe von Ordnerstrukturen zu verwalten und kann folgenede Aufgaben bewältigen:</para>
577
367
                                <itemizedlist>
578
368
                                        <listitem>
579
 
                                                <para>Create and display folders and documents: Create new files, organise them
580
 
                                                into folders and save them.
581
 
                                                </para>
582
 
                                        </listitem>
583
 
                                        <listitem>
584
 
                                                <para>Search and manage your files: Classify files and
585
 
                                                search them as per their classification.</para>
586
 
                                        </listitem>
587
 
                                        <listitem>
588
 
                                                <para>Open special locations on your computer: Access the local network and save your files.
589
 
                                                </para>
590
 
                                        </listitem>
591
 
                                        <listitem>
592
 
                                                <para>Write data to a CD or DVD</para>
593
 
                                        </listitem>
594
 
                                        <listitem>
595
 
                                                <para>Navigate using two modes:</para>
 
369
                                                <para>Erstellen Sie Ordner und Dokumente und zeigen Sie diese an: Erstellen Sie neue Dateien, sortieren Sie sie in Ordner ein und speichern Sie sie.</para>
 
370
                                        </listitem>
 
371
                                        <listitem>
 
372
                                                <para>Suchen und verwalten Sie Ihre Dateien: Gruppieren Sie Dateien und suchen Sie sie anhand ihrer Klassifizierung.</para>
 
373
                                        </listitem>
 
374
                                        <listitem>
 
375
                                                <para>Erhalten Sie Zugang zu speziellen Bereichen Ihres Computers: Greifen Sie auf lokale Netzwerke zu und speichern Ihre Dateien.</para>
 
376
                                        </listitem>
 
377
                                        <listitem>
 
378
                                                <para>Schreiben Sie Daten auf eine CD oder DVD</para>
 
379
                                        </listitem>
 
380
                                        <listitem>
 
381
                                                <para>Navigieren Sie auf zwei Arten:</para>
596
382
                                                <itemizedlist>
597
383
                                                        <listitem>
598
 
                                                                <para>Spatial mode: Allows you to open each
599
 
                                                                folder in a separate window, which then helps open your files as
600
 
                                                                physical objects in different locations. You can view the
601
 
                                                                content of various folders simultaneously.</para>
 
384
                                                                <para>Räumlicher Modus: Jeder Ordner wird in einem eigenen Fenster geöffnet. Ihre Dateien öffnen Sie dann wie physische Objekte aus den verschienen Ordnern heraus. Sie können die Inhalte mehrerer Ordner gleichzeitig einsehen.</para>
602
385
                                                        </listitem>
603
386
                                                        <listitem>
604
 
                                                                <para>Browser mode: Opens your folders in a
605
 
                                                                single window. Only one file manager opens in browser
606
 
                                                                mode, and it is updated when you click another folder in the
607
 
                                                                file manager.</para>
 
387
                                                                <para>Navigations-Modus: Ihre Ordner werde innerhalb eines einzelnen Fensters geöffnet. Im Navigations-Modus öffnet sich nur ein Dateimanager und aktualisiert sich, sobald Sie auf einen anderen Ordner klicken.</para>
608
388
                                                        </listitem>
609
389
                                                </itemizedlist>
610
390
                                        </listitem>
611
391
                                </itemizedlist>
612
 
                                <instructornote><title>Instructor Notes:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">Compare browser mode with 
613
 
                                Firefox to help students appreciate the similarity.</emphasis></para>
 
392
                                <instructornote><title>Hinweis für die Lehrkraft:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">Vergleichen Sie den Navigationsmodus mit Firefox, um den Schülern die Ähnlichkeit darzustellen.</emphasis></para>
614
393
                        </instructornote>
615
394
                        </sect2>
616
395
                        <sect2>
617
396
                                <title>Nautilus</title>
618
 
                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
619
 
                                <para>Spatial mode is the default mode for the Nautilus file manager in
620
 
                                GNOME but while compiling Ubuntu, the mode changes to browser mode by default.</para></note>
621
 
                                <para>To choose the required mode:</para>
 
397
                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Hinweis:</emphasis></title>
 
398
                                <para>Der Räumliche Modus ist eigentlich der Standard Modus für den Nautilus Dateimanager in GNOME. Bei der Zusammenstellung von Ubuntu ist der Standard geändert worden auf den Navigationsmodus.</para></note>
 
399
                                <para>Den gewünschten Modus wählen Sie auf folgende Weise:</para>
622
400
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
623
401
                                        <listitem>
624
 
                                                <para>Click the <emphasis role="strong">Places</emphasis>
625
 
                                                menu. A list of items appears:
626
 
                                                <itemizedlist>
 
402
                                                <para>Klicken Sie auf das Menü <emphasis role="strong">Orte</emphasis>. Eine Liste von Einträgen erscheint:<itemizedlist>
627
403
                                                        <listitem>
628
 
                                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Home Folder:</emphasis>
629
 
                                                                This is a personal folder created by default for every user
630
 
                                                                to create and work on files. It takes the user name by
631
 
                                                                default.</para>
 
404
                                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Persönlicher Ordner:</emphasis> Das ist ein persönlicher Ordner, um Dateien zu erstellen und mit ihnen zu arbeiten, der für jeden Nutzer standardmäßig erzeugt wird. Dieser Ordner ist standardmäßig mit dem Namen des jeweiligen Nutzers benannt.</para>
632
405
                                                        </listitem>
633
406
                                                        <listitem>
634
407
                                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Desktop:</emphasis> An
654
427
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Places</emphasis> menu.</para>
655
428
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Using Nautilus File Manager</emphasis></title>
656
429
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
657
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_027.png" format="PNG" />
 
430
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_027.png" format="PNG"/>
658
431
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
659
432
                                                </figure>
660
433
                                                <para>The Nautilus file manager opens files in browser mode by default. If you open a folder in this mode,
664
437
                                                computer.</para>
665
438
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Files Display</emphasis></title>
666
439
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
667
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_028.png" format="PNG" />
 
440
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_028.png" format="PNG"/>
668
441
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
669
442
                                                </figure>
670
443
                                                <para>While in browser mode, you can move to the parent folder
672
445
                                                folder, click <emphasis role="strong">Open Parent</emphasis>
673
446
                                                on the <emphasis role="strong">Go</emphasis> menu in the
674
447
                                                window.</para>
675
 
                                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
 
448
                                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Hinweis:</emphasis></title>
676
449
                                                <para>You can also click <emphasis role="strong">Up</emphasis>
677
450
                                                on the navigation toolbar or press the BACKSPACE key to
678
451
                                                move to the parent folder.</para></note>
684
457
                                                dialogue box opens.</para>
685
458
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching File Management Preferences</emphasis></title>
686
459
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
687
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_029.png" format="PNG" />
 
460
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_029.png" format="PNG"/>
688
461
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
689
462
                                                </figure>
690
463
                                        </listitem>
696
469
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis>.</para>
697
470
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Changing File Management Behaviour</emphasis></title>
698
471
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
699
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_030.png" format="PNG" />
 
472
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_030.png" format="PNG"/>
700
473
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
701
474
                                                </figure>
702
475
                                        </listitem>
706
479
                                                will open in a different file manager window.</para>
707
480
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Confirming File Management Behaviour Changes</emphasis></title>
708
481
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
709
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_031.png" format="PNG" />
 
482
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_031.png" format="PNG"/>
710
483
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
711
484
                                                </figure>
712
 
                                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
 
485
                                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Hinweis:</emphasis></title>
713
486
                                                <para>Each time you open a particular folder in spatial mode, you
714
487
                                                will find its window displayed in the same place on the screen
715
488
                                                and of the same size as during the last view. For this reason,
718
491
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Open Parent</emphasis> on the
719
492
                                                <emphasis role="strong">File</emphasis> menu. Alternatively,
720
493
                                                you can press the ALT+UP arrow key.</para>
721
 
                                                <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
722
 
                                                <para>Konqueror is KDE equivalent of Nautilus file manager, 
723
 
                                                which is used in the Kubuntu derivative of Ubuntu. It is a 
724
 
                                                multi-purpose application that can act as a file manager, Web browser 
725
 
                                                and universal viewer. As well as allowing you to browse Web sites, 
726
 
                                                this application provides basic file management and can many view different file types.</para></tip>
 
494
                                                <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Gut zu wissen:</emphasis></title>
 
495
                                                <para>Konqueror ist unter KDE die Entsprechung des Nautilus Dateimanagers, welche im Ubuntu-Derivat Kubuntu zum Einsatz kommt. Es handelt sich dabei um eine multi-funktionale Anwendung, die Dateimanager, Webbrowser und Universal-Betrachter in einem ist. Genauso wie Sie damit durchs Web surfen können, so können Sie auch grundlegende Dateiverwaltung vornehmen und Dateien vieler verschiedener Typen betrachten.</para></tip>
727
496
                                        </listitem>
728
497
                                </orderedlist>
729
498
                        </sect2>
730
499
                </sect1>
731
500
                <sect1>
732
 
                        <title>Package Managers</title>
733
 
                        <para>One of the biggest differences between Ubuntu and Microsoft Windows is
734
 
                        how you install and uninstall programmes and applications. In Microsoft Windows, 
735
 
                        most applications provide their own installation and removal methods.
736
 
                        Some applications provide a method to keep themselves up to date, but others
737
 
                        do not and there is no easy way to ensure that everything on your computer is
738
 
                        up to date.  Keeping track of all the programmes that have been installed and 
739
 
                        keeping all those programmes updated is largely up to you.</para>
740
 
                        <para>Ubuntu is not like that. Instead, Ubuntu has a sophisticated 
741
 
                        <emphasis role="strong">package management framework</emphasis> that keeps
742
 
                        track of all the software installed in Ubuntu, automates
743
 
                        the process of installing and removing applications, and ensures that 
744
 
                        all the software is kept up to date with the latest enhancements and fixes.
745
 
                        All you have to do is decide what applications you want installed, and then
746
 
                        use a <emphasis role="strong">package manager</emphasis> to tell Ubuntu to
747
 
                        install them.</para>
 
501
                        <title>Paketmanager</title>
 
502
                        <para>Einer der größten Unterschiede zwischen Ubuntu und Microsoft Windows ist die Art, wie Sie Programme und Anwendungen installieren und deinstallieren. Bei Microsoft Windows bringen die meisten Anwendungen eigenen Installations- und Deinstallationsmethoden mit. Einige Anwendungen bieten eine Method zur Aktualisierung, aber andere tun das nicht und es gibt keine einfache Möglichkeit, um sicher zu stellen, dass alles auf Ihrem Computer aktuell ist. All die installierten Programme im Blick und auch aktuell zu halten bleibt Ihnen überlassen.</para>
 
503
                        <para>Ubuntu ist nicht so. Stattdessen enthält Ubuntu ein ausgeklügeltes <emphasis role="strong">Paketmanagement-System</emphasis>, das die gesamte in Ubuntu installierte Software überwacht, Installation und Deinstallation automatisiert und sicher stellt, dass die gesamte Software mit den neusten Erweiterungen und Fehlerbereinigungen aktuell bleibt. Die Entscheidung treffen, welche Anwendungen Sie installiert haben möchten, ist alles, was Sie tun müssen; und dann verwenden Sie den <emphasis role="strong">Paketmanager</emphasis>, um sie Ubuntu installieren zu lassen.</para>
748
504
                        <sect2>
749
 
                                <title>Types of Package Managers</title>
750
 
                                <para>Ubuntu includes a few package managers by default and
751
 
                                which one you use depends on how advanced the package
752
 
                                management tasks are that you want to achieve. Depending on their
753
 
                                features, package managers are divided into the following categories:
754
 
                                </para>
 
505
                                <title>Paketmanager-Typen</title>
 
506
                                <para>Ubuntu beinhaltet von Vornherein ein paar Paketmanager und welchen Sie verwenden, hängt davon ab, welche Aufgaben zur Paketverwaltung Sie nutzen wollen. Abhängig von ihren Ausstattungsmerkmalen lassen sich Paketmanager in die folgenden Kategorien einteilen:</para>
755
507
                                <table>
756
 
                                <title>Table 1</title>
 
508
                                <title>Tabelle 1</title>
757
509
                                        <tgroup cols="2">
758
510
                                                <tbody>
759
511
                                                        <row>
760
 
                                                                <entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Package
761
 
                                                                Managers</emphasis></para></entry>
762
 
                                                                <entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Package Manager
763
 
                                                                Features</emphasis></para></entry>
 
512
                                                                <entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Paketmanager</emphasis></para></entry>
 
513
                                                                <entry><para><emphasis role="strong">Paketmanager-Merkmale</emphasis></para></entry>
764
514
                                                        </row>
765
515
                                                        <row>
766
516
                                                                <entry><para>
767
517
                                                                        <itemizedlist>
768
518
                                                                                <listitem>
769
 
                                                                                <para>Graphical package managers</para>
 
519
                                                                                <para>Grafische Paketmanager</para>
770
520
                                                                                        <itemizedlist>
771
521
                                                                                                <listitem>
772
 
                                                                                                        <para>Synaptic Package Manager</para>
 
522
                                                                                                        <para>Synaptic Paketmanager</para>
773
523
                                                                                                </listitem>
774
524
                                                                                                <listitem>
775
 
                                                                                                        <para>Add/Remove Applications</para>
 
525
                                                                                                        <para>Hinzufügen/Entfernen von Anwendungen</para>
776
526
                                                                                                </listitem>
777
527
                                                                                        </itemizedlist>
778
528
                                                                                </listitem>
781
531
                                                                <entry><para>
782
532
                                                                        <itemizedlist>
783
533
                                                                                <listitem>
784
 
                                                                                        <para>List packages according to several
785
 
                                                                                        user-friendly categories, such as Education,
786
 
                                                                                        Games and Graphics</para>
787
 
                                                                                </listitem>
788
 
                                                                                <listitem>
789
 
                                                                                        <para>Guide you through installation and
790
 
                                                                                        access</para>
791
 
                                                                                </listitem>
792
 
                                                                                <listitem>
793
 
                                                                                        <para>Use a graphical interface</para>
 
534
                                                                                        <para>Listen die Pakete nach mehreren anwenderfreundlichen Kategorien wie Lernen, Spiele und Grafik auf</para>
 
535
                                                                                </listitem>
 
536
                                                                                <listitem>
 
537
                                                                                        <para>Führen Sie durch die Installation und den Zugriff</para>
 
538
                                                                                </listitem>
 
539
                                                                                <listitem>
 
540
                                                                                        <para>Verwenden eine grafische Benutzerschnittstelle</para>
794
541
                                                                                </listitem>
795
542
                                                                        </itemizedlist>
796
543
                                                                </para></entry>
799
546
                                                                <entry><para>
800
547
                                                                        <itemizedlist>
801
548
                                                                                <listitem>
802
 
                                                                                        <para>Command line package manager</para>
 
549
                                                                                        <para>Paketmanager der Kommandozeile</para>
803
550
                                                                                        <itemizedlist>
804
551
                                                                                                <listitem>
805
552
                                                                                                        <para>apt-get</para>
811
558
                                                                <entry><para>
812
559
                                                                        <itemizedlist>
813
560
                                                                                <listitem>
814
 
                                                                                        <para>Add and remove packages from
815
 
                                                                                        repositories</para>
 
561
                                                                                        <para>Fügt Pakete aus den Repositories hinzu und entfernt sie</para>
816
562
                                                                                </listitem>
817
563
                                                                                <listitem>
818
 
                                                                                        <para>Use a command line interface</para>
 
564
                                                                                        <para>Verwenden eine Benutzerschnittstelle auf der Kommandozeile</para>
819
565
                                                                                </listitem>
820
566
                                                                        </itemizedlist>
821
567
                                                                </para></entry>
823
569
                                                </tbody>
824
570
                                        </tgroup>
825
571
                                </table>
826
 
                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
827
 
                                <para>If you open more than one package manager at the same time,
828
 
                                they may not work. Close all the package managers and open just
829
 
                                one.</para></note>
830
 
                                <para>You can use any of the package managers based on your
831
 
                                preferred GUI, terminal or level of control over the package
832
 
                                management process. If you prefer to use the GUI over the
833
 
                                command line interface, you may choose the graphical package
834
 
                                managers, Add/Remove Applications and Synaptic Package
835
 
                                Manager.</para>
 
572
                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Hinweis:</emphasis></title>
 
573
                                <para>Es funktioniert nicht, dass Sie mehr als einen Paketmanager gleichzeitig öffnen. Schließen Sie alle Paketmanager und öffnen Sie nur einen.</para></note>
 
574
                                <para>Sie können jeden der Paketmenager verwenden - je nachdem, ob sie lieber Grafik oder die Kommandozeile vorziehen und welche Kontrollmöglichkeiten Sie über den Prozess der Paketverwaltung haben möchten. Wenn Sie eine grafische Benutzerschnittstelle der Steuerung auf der Kommandozeile vorziehen, könnten Sie die grafischen Paketmanager Hinzufügen/Entfernen von Anwendungen und Synaptic Paketmanager verwenden.</para>
836
575
                        </sect2>
837
576
                </sect1>
838
577
                <sect1>
839
 
                        <title>Using Add/Remove Applications</title>
840
 
                        <para>The Add/Remove tool is the easiest to use and will enable you to install and uninstall many
841
 
                        popular packages. You can search for the package or packages you want to install
842
 
                        by simply searching a keyword such as 'email' or by looking through the
843
 
                        given categories, selecting applications and choosing "Apply" to start the installation.</para>
844
 
                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
845
 
                        <para>You need administrative access to use any package manager. Type the password for your
846
 
                        user name at the prompt. This means that applications can not be added / removed from your computer
847
 
                        without your knowledge (and password).</para></note>
848
 
                        <para>The procedure to add or remove software by using Add/Remove
849
 
                        Applications is:
850
 
                        <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
851
 
                                <listitem>
852
 
                                        <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">Applications</emphasis>
853
 
                                        menu, click <emphasis role="strong">Add/Remove</emphasis>.
854
 
                                        </para>
855
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Add/Remove Applications</emphasis></title>
856
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
857
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_032.png" format="PNG" />
858
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
859
 
                                        </figure>
860
 
                                </listitem>
861
 
                                <listitem>
862
 
                                        <para>The <emphasis role="strong">Add/Remove Applications</emphasis>
863
 
                                        dialogue box displays a list of applications. The
864
 
                                        check boxes against the applications that are already installed are
865
 
                                        pre-selected.</para>
866
 
                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
867
 
                                        <para>Many package names in Ubuntu are quite obscure, so the package manager
868
 
                                        will also look at the package description when searching.</para></note>
869
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Add/Remove Applications Window</emphasis></title>
870
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
871
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_033.png" format="PNG" />
872
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
873
 
                                        </figure>
874
 
                                </listitem>
875
 
                                <listitem>
876
 
                                        <para>If you know the name of the package to be installed, you
877
 
                                        can type the name in the <emphasis role="strong">Search</emphasis>
878
 
                                        box. Otherwise, you can click the appropriate
879
 
                                        software category in the left pane and select the check box next to
880
 
                                        the required package in the right pane.</para>
881
 
                                        <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Nice to Know:</emphasis></title>
882
 
                                        <para>For more details about a package, click the package and view
883
 
                                        the bottom pane.</para></tip>
884
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Searching a Package in All Available Applications</emphasis></title>
885
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
886
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_034.png" format="PNG" />
887
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
888
 
                                        </figure>
889
 
                                </listitem>
890
 
                                <listitem>
891
 
                                        <para>When you have finished selecting the packages to be
892
 
                                        installed or removed, click <emphasis role="strong">Apply Changes</emphasis>
893
 
                                        .</para>
894
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Applying Changes to the Package List</emphasis></title>
895
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
896
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_035.png" format="PNG" />
897
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
898
 
                                        </figure>
899
 
                                </listitem>
900
 
                                <listitem>
901
 
                                        <para>You are prompted to confirm your selection. Click
902
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Apply</emphasis> to proceed.</para>
903
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Confirming Changes</emphasis></title>
904
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
905
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_036.png" format="PNG" />
906
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
907
 
                                        </figure>
908
 
                                </listitem>
909
 
                                <listitem>
910
 
                                        <para>The progress indicator shows the status of the package
911
 
                                        being installed or removed.</para>
912
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Installing Selected Package from Repositories</emphasis></title>
913
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
914
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_037.png" format="PNG" />
915
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
916
 
                                        </figure>
917
 
                                </listitem>
918
 
                                <listitem>
919
 
                                        <para>After the changes are applied
920
 
                                        successfully, the
921
 
                                        package is installed.</para>
922
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Installation Confirmation</emphasis></title>
923
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
924
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_038.png" format="PNG" />
925
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
926
 
                                        </figure>
927
 
                                </listitem>
928
 
                                <listitem>
929
 
                                        <para>Double-click the package to launch it.
930
 
                                        If you want to add or remove more applications, click
931
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Add/Remove More Applications</emphasis> or else 
932
 
                                        click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> in the 
933
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">New application has been installed</emphasis> dialogue box. The following figure shows 
934
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Atomix</emphasis>, which has been installed by
935
 
                                        performing this procedure.</para>
936
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching the Installed Application - Atomix</emphasis></title>
937
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
938
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_039.png" format="PNG" />
939
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
940
 
                                        </figure>
941
 
                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
942
 
                                        <para>After installing a package, you can open it by using a particular
943
 
                                        menu based on its category.</para></note>
944
 
                                </listitem>
945
 
                        </orderedlist>
946
 
                        </para>
947
 
                </sect1>
948
 
                <sect1>
949
 
                        <title>Using Synaptic Package Manager</title>
950
 
                        <para>Add/Remove Applications does not allow you to install and
951
 
                        remove all advanced packages, such as the Apache web server, the PHP
952
 
                        programming language or Scribe. In such cases, use Synaptic
953
 
                        Package Manager.</para>
954
 
                        <para>Synaptic Package Manager combines the point-and-click
955
 
                        simplicity of the GUI with the power of the apt-get command line tool.
956
 
                        You can install, remove, configure or upgrade software packages,
957
 
                        browse, sort and search the list of available software packages, manage
958
 
                        repositories or upgrade the whole system. You can queue up a number
959
 
                        of actions before you execute them. Synaptic informs you about the
960
 
                        additional packages required by the software package you have chosen
961
 
                        as well as conflicts with other packages that are already installed on
962
 
                        your system. In addition, it presents more information such as package
963
 
                        status, origin and filters.</para>
964
 
                        <para>To add and remove any package using Synaptic Packager
965
 
                        Manager:
966
 
                        <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
967
 
                                <listitem>
968
 
                                        <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
969
 
                                        menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Administration</emphasis>
970
 
                                        and then click <emphasis role="strong">Synaptic
971
 
                                        Package Manager</emphasis>.</para>
972
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Synaptic Package Manager</emphasis></title>
973
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
974
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_040.png" format="PNG" />
975
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
976
 
                                        </figure>
977
 
                                </listitem>
978
 
                                <listitem>
979
 
                                        <para>In the <emphasis role="strong">Synaptic Package Manager</emphasis>
980
 
                                        dialogue box, you can select the package you need.
981
 
                                        The left pane lists the categories, and the right pane lists the
982
 
                                        packages. If you do not know the name of the package, select the
983
 
                                        category in the left pane to filter the list of packages. You can then
984
 
                                        select the check box next to the required package in the right pane.
985
 
                                        </para>
986
 
                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
987
 
                                        <para>If you want to view the installed and uninstalled
988
 
                                        packages, click <emphasis role="strong">Status</emphasis>.
989
 
                                        To know the source repository of the package, click
990
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Origin</emphasis>. Click
991
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Custom Filters</emphasis> if you
992
 
                                        want to know the whether a package is broken or can be
993
 
                                        upgraded.</para></note>
994
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Synaptic Package Manager Window</emphasis></title>
995
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
996
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_041.png" format="PNG" />
997
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
998
 
                                        </figure>
999
 
                                </listitem>
1000
 
                                <listitem>
1001
 
                                        <para>If you know the name of the package, click
1002
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Search</emphasis>. The
1003
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Find</emphasis> dialogue box opens.
1004
 
                                        Type the name of the package in the <emphasis role="strong">
1005
 
                                        Search</emphasis> field and click <emphasis role="strong">
1006
 
                                        Search</emphasis>.</para>
1007
 
                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
1008
 
                                        <para>To return to the list of categories after searching the packages
1009
 
                                        using <emphasis role="strong">Search</emphasis>, click
1010
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Sections</emphasis>.</para></note>
1011
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Searching a Package to Install </emphasis></title>
1012
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1013
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_042.png" format="PNG" />
1014
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1015
 
                                        </figure>
1016
 
                                </listitem>
1017
 
                                <listitem>
1018
 
                                        <para>Choose the action to be performed on the selected
1019
 
                                        package. Select the <emphasis role="strong">Mark for Installation</emphasis>
1020
 
                                        check box to install the package or select the
1021
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Mark for Removal</emphasis> check box
1022
 
                                        to remove it. If you change your mind, select the
1023
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Unmark</emphasis> check box.</para>
1024
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Marking the Package for Installation</emphasis></title>
1025
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1026
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_043.png" format="PNG" />
1027
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1028
 
                                        </figure>
1029
 
                                </listitem>
1030
 
                                <listitem>
1031
 
                                        <para>If the package that you choose to remove or install depends on other packages,
1032
 
                                        you will be notified about the dependencies. To continue making changes, click
1033
 
                                        <emphasis role="strong">Mark</emphasis>.</para>
1034
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Confirming Additional Changes</emphasis></title>
1035
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1036
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_044.png" format="PNG" />
1037
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1038
 
                                        </figure>
1039
 
                                </listitem>
1040
 
                                <listitem>
1041
 
                                        <para>To confirm that you want to make the marked changes,
1042
 
                                        click <emphasis role="strong">Apply</emphasis>.</para>
1043
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Applying Changes to Update Software Information</emphasis></title>
1044
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1045
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_045.png" format="PNG" />
1046
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1047
 
                                        </figure>
1048
 
                                </listitem>
1049
 
                                <listitem>
1050
 
                                        <para>The <emphasis role="strong">Summary</emphasis>
1051
 
                                        dialogue box opens, prompting you for a final check before making
1052
 
                                        the marked changes. Click <emphasis role="strong">Apply</emphasis>
1053
 
                                        to continue with the changes.</para>
1054
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Final Confirmation to Install the Package</emphasis></title>
1055
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1056
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_046.png" format="PNG" />
1057
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1058
 
                                        </figure>
1059
 
                                </listitem>
1060
 
                                <listitem>
1061
 
                                        <para>When all the marked changes are made, you are notified
1062
 
                                        about the changes applied. Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis>
1063
 
                                        to close Synaptic Package Manager.</para>
1064
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Installation Confirmation</emphasis></title>
1065
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1066
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_047.png" format="PNG" />
1067
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1068
 
                                        </figure>
1069
 
                                        <para>This step completes the procedure of installing packages by
1070
 
                                        using Synaptic Package Manager. You can access the installed
1071
 
                                        package by selecting a particular menu, depending on the category
1072
 
                                        of the package. The following figure shows Abiword, which has been
1073
 
                                        installed using this procedure.</para>
1074
 
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching the Installed Application - Abiword</emphasis></title>
1075
 
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
1076
 
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_048.png" format="PNG" />
1077
 
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
1078
 
                                        </figure>
1079
 
                                </listitem>
1080
 
                        </orderedlist>
1081
 
                        </para>
1082
 
                </sect1>
1083
 
                <sect1>
1084
 
                        <title>Installing a Single Package File</title>
1085
 
                        <para>The preferred method of installing programmes is by using package
1086
 
                        managers. If some packages or files are not available, you can download
1087
 
                        and install them from Web sites. These files are associated with the
1088
 
                        package managers of specific Linux distributions and are referred to as
1089
 
                        single package files. Examples are Debian package files-.deb
1090
 
                        files and tarballs-.tar files.
1091
 
                        </para>
1092
 
                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
1093
 
                        <para>You should download files that are not present in Ubuntu archives only
1094
 
                        from a safe source.</para></note>
1095
 
                        <para>In this topic, you will learn about the major type of single
1096
 
                        package files, Debian Packages.</para>
 
578
                        <title>Verwendung von Hinzufügen/Entfernen von Anwendungen</title>
 
579
                        <para>Das Hinzufügen/Entfernen-Werkzeug ist das einfachste und erlaubt es Ihnen, viele beliebte Pakete zu installieren und zu deinstallieren. Sie können das Paket oder die Pakete, die Sie installieren möchten, einfach mit Hilfe eines Suchbegriffs wie zum Beispiel 'E-Mail' suchen oder sie orientieren sich an den vorhandenen Kategorien, wählen dann die Anwendungen aus und klicken dann auf &quot;Anwenden&quot;, um die  Installation zu starten.</para>
 
580
                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Hinweis:</emphasis></title>
 
581
                        <para>Sie benötigen Administrationsrechte für die Verwendung sämtlicher Paketmanager. Geben Sie bei der Eingabeaufforferung Ihr Kennwort für Ihren Nutzernamen ein. Dadurch kann keine Anwendung auf Ihren Computer ohne Ihr Wissen (und ohne Ihr Kennwort) hinzugefügt oder entfernt werden.</para></note>
 
582
                        <para>Der Ablauf, Software mit Hinzufügen/Entfernen von Anwendungen hinzuzufügen oder zu entfernen ist wie folgt:<orderedlist numeration="arabic">
 
583
                                <listitem>
 
584
                                        <para>Im Menü <emphasis role="strong">Anwendungen</emphasis> klicken Sie <emphasis role="strong">Hinzufügen/Entfernen</emphasis>.</para>
 
585
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Hinzufügen/Entfernen von Anwendungen wird gestartet</emphasis></title>
 
586
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
587
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_032.png" format="PNG"/>
 
588
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
589
                                        </figure>
 
590
                                </listitem>
 
591
                                <listitem>
 
592
                                        <para>Das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Hinzufügen/Entfernen von Anwendungen</emphasis> zeigt Ihnen eine Liste von Anwendungen. Die Ankreuzfelder jeweils bei den Anwendungen, die schon installiert sind, sind auch schon angekreuzt.</para>
 
593
                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Hinweis:</emphasis></title>
 
594
                                        <para>Viele Paketnamen in Ubuntu sind ein bisschen merkwürdig, so dass der Paketmanager bei der Suche auch in den Beschreibungen nachschaut.</para></note>
 
595
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Das Fenster von Hinzufügen/Entfernen von Anwendungen</emphasis></title>
 
596
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
597
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_033.png" format="PNG"/>
 
598
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
599
                                        </figure>
 
600
                                </listitem>
 
601
                                <listitem>
 
602
                                        <para>Wenn Sie den Namen des Pakets kennen, dass Sie installieren möchten, dann geben Sie diesen in das FeId <emphasis role="strong">Suche</emphasis> ein. Ansonsten können Sie die passende Software-Kategorie im linken Bereich anklicken und und das Ankreuzfeld beim benötigten Paket im rechten Bereich anwählen.</para>
 
603
                                        <tip><title><emphasis role="strong">Gut zu wissen:</emphasis></title>
 
604
                                        <para>Für Details über das Paket klicken Sie auf das Paket und lesen Sie im unteren Bereich nach.</para></tip>
 
605
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Suche nach einem Paket in All Available Applications</emphasis></title>
 
606
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
607
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_034.png" format="PNG"/>
 
608
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
609
                                        </figure>
 
610
                                </listitem>
 
611
                                <listitem>
 
612
                                        <para>Wenn Sie Ihre Auswahl über die zu installierenden und die zu entfernenden Pakete getroffen haben, dann klicken <emphasis role="strong">Änderungen annehmen</emphasis> .</para>
 
613
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Anwendung der Änderungen an der Paket-Liste</emphasis></title>
 
614
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
615
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_035.png" format="PNG"/>
 
616
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
617
                                        </figure>
 
618
                                </listitem>
 
619
                                <listitem>
 
620
                                        <para>Sie werden aufgefordert, Ihre Auswahl zu bestätigen. Klicken Sie <emphasis role="strong">Anwenden</emphasis> um fortzufahren.</para>
 
621
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Bestätigung der Änderungen</emphasis></title>
 
622
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
623
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_036.png" format="PNG"/>
 
624
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
625
                                        </figure>
 
626
                                </listitem>
 
627
                                <listitem>
 
628
                                        <para>Der Status über die Pakete die installiert oder entfernd werden sollen wird durch die Fortschrittsanzeige dargestellt.</para>
 
629
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Installation ausgewählter Pakete aus den Repositories</emphasis></title>
 
630
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
631
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_037.png" format="PNG"/>
 
632
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
633
                                        </figure>
 
634
                                </listitem>
 
635
                                <listitem>
 
636
                                        <para>Nachdem die Änderungen erfolgreich durchgeführt wurden, ist das Paket installiert.</para>
 
637
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Bestätigung der Installation</emphasis></title>
 
638
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
639
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_038.png" format="PNG"/>
 
640
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
641
                                        </figure>
 
642
                                </listitem>
 
643
                                <listitem>
 
644
                                        <para>Klicken Sie soppelt auf das Paket, um es zu starten. Wenn Sie weitere Anwendungen hinzufügen oder entfernen wollen, dann klicken Sie <emphasis role="strong">Hinzufügen/Entfernen von Anwendungen</emphasis> oder klicken Sie ansonsten <emphasis role="strong">Schließen</emphasis> im Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Neue Anwendungen wurden installiert</emphasis>. Die folgenden Darstellung zeigt <emphasis role="strong">Atomix</emphasis>, welches mit Hilfe dieses Ablaufs installiert wurde.</para>
 
645
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Aufruf der installierten Anwendung - Atomix</emphasis></title>
 
646
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
647
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_039.png" format="PNG"/>
 
648
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
649
                                        </figure>
 
650
                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Hinweis:</emphasis></title>
 
651
                                        <para>Nach der Installation eines Pakets können Sie dieses starten, indem Sie das Menü aufrufen, welches der Kategorie des Pakets entspricht.</para></note>
 
652
                                </listitem>
 
653
                        </orderedlist>
 
654
                        </para>
 
655
                </sect1>
 
656
                <sect1>
 
657
                        <title>Die Verwendung des Synaptic Paketmanagers</title>
 
658
                        <para>Mit Hinzufügen/Entfernen von Anwendungen können Sie nicht all die speziellen Pakete installieren oder entfernen wie zum Beispiel den Apache Webserver, die Programmiersprache PHP oder Scribe. Verwenden Sie in einem solchen Fall die Synaptic Paketverwaltung.</para>
 
659
                        <para>Die Synaptic Paketverwaltung verbindet die einfache Bedienung der grafischen Benutzeroberfläche mit der Vielfalt an Möglichkeiten des Kommandozeilen-Programms apt-get. Sie können Softwarepakete installieren, entfernen, konfigurieren oder aktualisieren; Sie können die Listen aller vorhandenen Pakete durchsuchen und Sie können die Repositories verwalten oder auch das ganze System auf eine neue Version erneuern. Sie können eine Reihe von Vorgängen vorbereiten und dann alle auf einmal durchführen. Synaptic informiert Sie über notwendige weitere Pakete wenn Sie ein Softwarepaket zur Installation auswählen und weist Sie ebenso auf Unverträglichkeiten mit Paketen hin, die schon auf Ihrem System installiert sind. Zusätzlich zeigt es weitere Informationen an wie Status der Pakete, Ursprung und Filter.</para>
 
660
                        <para>Um ein Paket mit der Synaptic Paketverwaltung hinzuzufügen oder zu entfernen, tun Sie folgendes:<orderedlist numeration="arabic">
 
661
                                <listitem>
 
662
                                        <para>Gehen Sie im Menü <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> auf <emphasis role="strong">Systemverwaltung</emphasis> und klicken dort auf <emphasis role="strong">Synaptic Paketverwaltung</emphasis>.</para>
 
663
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Die Verwendung der Synaptic Paketverwaltung</emphasis></title>
 
664
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
665
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_040.png" format="PNG"/>
 
666
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
667
                                        </figure>
 
668
                                </listitem>
 
669
                                <listitem>
 
670
                                        <para>Im Fenster der <emphasis role="strong">Synaptic Paketverwaltung</emphasis> können Sie das Paket auswählen, das Sie brauchen. Im linken Bereich wird eine Liste von Kategorien angezeigt und im rechten Bereich ist die Liste der Pakete. Wenn Sie den Namen des Pakets nicht kennen, wählen Sie auf der linken Seite eine Kategorie aus und filtern so die Paketeliste entsprechend. Sie können dann das Ankreuzfeld des Pakets im rechten Bereich anwählen.</para>
 
671
                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Hinweis:</emphasis></title>
 
672
                                        <para>Wenn Sie die installierten und die nicht installierten Pakete überblicken wollen, klicken Sie auf <emphasis role="strong">Status</emphasis>. Um die Herkunftsquelle eines Pakets zu ermitteln, klicken Sie auf <emphasis role="strong">Ursprung</emphasis>. Klicken Sie auf <emphasis role="strong">Benutzerdefinierte Filter</emphasis> wenn Sie wissen wollen, ob ein Paket beschädigt ist oder aktualisiert werden kann.</para></note>
 
673
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Das Fenster der Synaptic Paketverwaltung</emphasis></title>
 
674
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
675
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_041.png" format="PNG"/>
 
676
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
677
                                        </figure>
 
678
                                </listitem>
 
679
                                <listitem>
 
680
                                        <para>Wenn Sie den Namen eines Paketes kennen, klicken Sie auf <emphasis role="strong">Suche</emphasis>. Das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Suchen</emphasis> öffnet sich. Geben Sie den Namen des Pakets in das Eingabefeld <emphasis role="strong">Suche</emphasis> und klicken Sie <emphasis role="strong">Suchen</emphasis>.</para>
 
681
                                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Hinweis:</emphasis></title>
 
682
                                        <para>Um zur Kategorienliste nach einem Fund mit Hilfe von <emphasis role="strong">Suche</emphasis> des Paketes zurück zu gelangen, klicken Sie auf  <emphasis role="strong">Sektionen</emphasis>.</para></note>
 
683
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Suche nach einem Paket zum Installieren</emphasis></title>
 
684
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
685
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_042.png" format="PNG"/>
 
686
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
687
                                        </figure>
 
688
                                </listitem>
 
689
                                <listitem>
 
690
                                        <para>Entscheiden Sie, was mit dem ausgewählten Paket geschehen soll. Wählen Sie <emphasis role="strong">Zum Installieren vormerken</emphasis>, um das Paket zu installieren oder wählen Sie <emphasis role="strong">Zum Entfernen vormerken</emphasis>, um es zu entfernen. Wenn Sie es sich anders überlegt haben, wählen Sie <emphasis role="strong">Vormerkung aufheben</emphasis>.</para>
 
691
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Auswahl des Paketes für die Installation</emphasis></title>
 
692
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
693
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_043.png" format="PNG"/>
 
694
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
695
                                        </figure>
 
696
                                </listitem>
 
697
                                <listitem>
 
698
                                        <para>Wenn das Paket, welches Sie entfernen oder installieren wollen, von anderen Paketen abhängt, werden Sie über diese Abhängigkeiten in Kenntnis gesetzt. Um die Änderungen fortzusetzen, klicken Sie auf <emphasis role="strong">Vormerken</emphasis>.</para>
 
699
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Bestätigung zusätzlicher Änderungen</emphasis></title>
 
700
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
701
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_044.png" format="PNG"/>
 
702
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
703
                                        </figure>
 
704
                                </listitem>
 
705
                                <listitem>
 
706
                                        <para>Zur Bestätigung der vorgemerkten Änderungen, klicken Sie auf <emphasis role="strong">Anwenden</emphasis>.</para>
 
707
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Anwendung der Änderungen der aktualisierten Software Informationen</emphasis></title>
 
708
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
709
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_045.png" format="PNG"/>
 
710
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
711
                                        </figure>
 
712
                                </listitem>
 
713
                                <listitem>
 
714
                                        <para>Das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Zusammenfassung</emphasis> benötigt von Ihnen eine abschließende Kontrolle, bevor die Änderungen angewendet werden. Klicken Sie <emphasis role="strong">Anwenden</emphasis>, um mit den Änderungen fortzufahren.</para>
 
715
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Abscgließende Bestätigung zur Installation des Paketes</emphasis></title>
 
716
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
717
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_046.png" format="PNG"/>
 
718
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
719
                                        </figure>
 
720
                                </listitem>
 
721
                                <listitem>
 
722
                                        <para>Wenn alle Vormerkungen umgesetzt wurden, werden Sie darüber informiert. Klicken Sie <emphasis role="strong">Schließen</emphasis> um die Synaptic Paketverweltung zu schließen.</para>
 
723
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Bestätigung der Installation</emphasis></title>
 
724
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
725
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_047.png" format="PNG"/>
 
726
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
727
                                        </figure>
 
728
                                        <para>Dieser Schritt schließt den Installationsvorgang eines Paketes mit der Synaptic-Paketverwaltung ab. Sie können auf das installierte Paket zugreifen, indem Sie das der Kategorie des Pakets entsprechende Menü anwählen. Die folgfende Abbildung zeigt Abiword, welches durch diesen Vorgang installiert wurde.</para>
 
729
                                        <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Aufruf der installierten Anwendung - Abiword</emphasis></title>
 
730
                                                <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
731
                                                        <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_048.png" format="PNG"/>
 
732
                                                </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
733
                                        </figure>
 
734
                                </listitem>
 
735
                        </orderedlist>
 
736
                        </para>
 
737
                </sect1>
 
738
                <sect1>
 
739
                        <title>Die Installation von Einzelpaketen</title>
 
740
                        <para>Die beste Methode zum Installieren von Programmen ist die Verwendung von Paketverwaltungsprogrammen.. Falls einige Pakete oder Dateien nicht zur Verfügung stehen, können Sie diese von einer Webseite herunteraden und installieren. Diese Dateien sind mit den Paketverwaltungen der jeweiligen Linuxdistributionen verknüpft und werden als Einzelpakete bezeichnet. Beispiele dafür sind Debian-Paket-Dateien, .deb-Dateien, und Tarballs, .tar-Dateien.</para>
 
741
                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Hinweis:</emphasis></title>
 
742
                        <para>Sie sollten Dateien, die nicht in den Ubuntu Repositories enthalten sind, nur aus sicheren Quellen runterladen.</para></note>
 
743
                        <para>In diesem Abschnitt lernen sie Debian-Pakete kennen, der Hauptvertreter der Einzelpakete.</para>
1097
744
                        <itemizedlist>
1098
745
                                <listitem>
1099
 
                                        <para>Debian Package files: These files are associated with
1100
 
                                        Ubuntu and have the .deb suffix.</para>
 
746
                                        <para>Debian-Paket-Dateien: Diese Dateien sind mit Ubuntu verknüpft und haben die Dateiendung .deb.</para>
1101
747
                                </listitem>
1102
748
                                <listitem>
1103
 
                                        <para>Tarballs: Zipped archive files that contain the source code of
1104
 
                                        a programme. This source code needs to be compiled before use.
1105
 
                                        Installing programmes by compiling them from source is not covered by this course.</para>
 
749
                                        <para>Tarballs: Komprimierte Archiv-Dateien, die den Quellcode eines Programms enthalten. Der Quellcode muss vor der Verwendung kompiliert werden. Die Installation von Programmen durch Kompilierung des Quellcodes wird nicht in diesem Kurs behandelt.</para>
1106
750
                                </listitem>
1107
751
                        </itemizedlist>
1108
 
                        <para>Compiling and installing programmes from source tarballs can often be quite 
1109
 
                        straightforward, however it can also be very complex to debug when things go wrong. 
1110
 
                        Tarballs are simple structures which don't specify what dependencies are required
1111
 
                        to enable compilation to take place. For this reason it can also be time consuming
1112
 
                        and complex to determine the necessary dependencies and either install or compile them
1113
 
                        also. Compiling from tarball is therefore not covered on this course.</para>
1114
 
                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
1115
 
                        <para>It is not guaranteed that these files will be compatible with your
1116
 
                        system and you will not receive security updates if you install these
1117
 
                        files. Therefore, always use a native Ubuntu package of the
1118
 
                        application available through a package manager, if available.</para></note>
 
752
                        <para>Die Kompilierung und Installation von Programmen aus Quellcode-Tarballs kann recht unkompliziert ablaufen, es kann jedoch auch zu einer sehr komplexen Problemsuche ausarten, wenn etwas schief läuft. Tarballs sind simpel strukturierte und enthalten keine Angaben zu Abhängigkeiten, um eine Kompilierung durchführen zu können. Daher kann es zeitaufwändig und komplex sein, die notwendigen Abhängigkeiten zu ermitteln und diese entweder ebenfalls zu kompilieren oder zu installieren. Die Kompilierung von Tarballs wird nicht in diesem Kurs behandelt.</para>
 
753
                        <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Hinweis:</emphasis></title>
 
754
                        <para>Es ist nicht sicher, dass diese Dateien kompatibel mit Ihrem System sind, und Sie bekommen keine Sicherheitsaktualisierungen nach ihrer Installation. Verwenden Sie daher, wenn möglich, immer originale Ubuntu-Pakete einer Anwenndung in der Paketverwaltung.</para></note>
1119
755
                        <sect2>
1120
 
                                <title>Installing/Uninstalling Debian Packages</title>
1121
 
                                <para>Debian packages are installed and uninstalled using the
1122
 
                                graphical installer (gdebi). gdebi will attempt to install any dependencies
1123
 
                                which are in the Ubuntu repositories, however if the package requires
1124
 
                                further dependencies which are not in the Ubuntu repositories these will also
1125
 
                                need to be installed manually.</para>
1126
 
                                <para>To install a Debian package, open the .deb file from the folder
1127
 
                                in which it resides.</para>
1128
 
                                <para>Installing a Debian package:
1129
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
1130
 
                                        <listitem>
1131
 
                                                <para>Download the package XVidCap
1132
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">xvidcap_1.1.6_i386.deb</emphasis>.
1133
 
                                                As this package is not in the Ubuntu repositories, you will need to 
1134
 
                                                download it from the following website:
1135
 
                                                <ulink url="http://sourceforge.net/projects/xvidcap/">http://sourceforge.net/projects/xvidcap/</ulink></para>
1136
 
                                        </listitem>
1137
 
                                        <listitem>
1138
 
                                                <para>Once downloaded, simply double click the .deb file and the
1139
 
                                                gdebi installer will start. It will check to see if you have all
1140
 
                                                the necessary dependents, and if so will offer an 
1141
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Install</emphasis> button. Simply press
1142
 
                                                the button to start the installation. In the event that dependencies
1143
 
                                                cannot be resolved, an error message will be displayed and you will
1144
 
                                                not be able to install the package until they are fulfilled.</para>
1145
 
                                        </listitem>
1146
 
                                        <listitem>
1147
 
                                                <para>To uninstall the package, simply use the Synaptic Package
1148
 
                                                Manager, as outlined previously in this section.</para>
 
756
                                <title>Debian-Pakete installieren und deinstallieren</title>
 
757
                                <para>Debian-Pakete werden installiert und deinstalliert mit Hilfe eines grafischen Installationsprogramms (gdebi). gdebi versucht alle Abhängigkeiten aufzulösen, die durch die Ubuntu Repositories erfüllt werden können; enthält das Paket jedoch weitere Abhängigkeiten, die nicht in den Ubuntu Repositories enthalten sind, müssen diese ebenfalls manuell installiert werden.</para>
 
758
                                <para>Um ein Debian-Paket zu installieren, öffnen Sie die .deb-Datei in dem Ordner, in dem sie sich befindet.</para>
 
759
                                <para>Installation eines DebianPaketes:<orderedlist numeration="arabic">
 
760
                                        <listitem>
 
761
                                                <para>Laden Sie das Paket XVidCap <emphasis role="strong">xvidcap_1.1.6_i386.deb</emphasis>. Da dieses Paket nicht in den Ubuntu Repositories enthalten ist, müssen Sie es von der folgenden Webseite herunterladen: <ulink url="http://sourceforge.net/projects/xvidcap/">http://sourceforge.net/projects/xvidcap/</ulink></para>
 
762
                                        </listitem>
 
763
                                        <listitem>
 
764
                                                <para>Nach dem Herunterladen klicken Sie einfach doppelt auf die .deb-Datei und das Installationsprogramm gdebi startet. Es prüft, ob die notwendigen Abhängigkeiten von Ihrem System erfüllt werden, und bietet im positiven Fall einen Button <emphasis role="strong">Installieren</emphasis>. Klicken Sie einfach den Button, um die Installation zu starten. Für den Fall, dass Abhängigkeiten nicht aufgelöst werden können, erscheint eine Fehlermeldung und Sie können das Paket nicht installieren, so lange diese Abhängigkeiten nicht aufgelöst sind.</para>
 
765
                                        </listitem>
 
766
                                        <listitem>
 
767
                                                <para>Um das Paket zu deinstallieren, verwenden Sie einfach die Synaptic Paketverwaltung, wie weiter oben dargestellt.</para>
1149
768
                                        </listitem>
1150
769
                                </orderedlist>
1151
770
                                </para>
1153
772
                </sect1>
1154
773
                <sect1>
1155
774
                        <title>Software Repositories</title>
1156
 
                        <para>A software repository is a library of software from where you can
1157
 
                        download and install packages (applications) over the Internet. The Ubuntu software
1158
 
                        repository contains tens of thousands of packages that are freely available for
1159
 
                        installation over the Internet. It is easy to install these packages because
1160
 
                        they are specially built for Ubuntu.</para>
 
775
                        <para>Ein Software Repository ist ein Softwarezusammenstellung, aus der Sie über das Internet Pakete (Anwendungen) runterladen und installieren können. Das Ubuntu Software Repository enthält zehntausende Pakete, die frei über das Internet verfügbar sind. Die Installation der Pakete ist einfach, da sie extra für Ubuntu erstellt wurden.</para>
1161
776
                        <!-- <instructornote><title>Instructor Notes:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">This section is a recap 
1162
777
                        of section 1. However, it is very critical to understand the concept of software repositories.</emphasis></para>
1163
778
                        </instructornote> -->
1164
779
                        <sect2>
1165
 
                                <title>Software Repository Categories</title>
1166
 
                                <para>Ubuntu repositories are categorised into
1167
 
                                four groups based on the level of support that software development teams
1168
 
                                provide for a programme and the level of compliance the programme has with
1169
 
                                the free software philosophy. <!-- These have already been outlined in lesson 1, but to re-iterate: --></para>
 
780
                                <title>Software Repository-Kategorien</title>
 
781
                                <para>Ubuntu Repositories sind nach dem Grad an Unterstützung, den die Software-Entwickler-Gruppen bieten, und dem Grad der Übereinstimmung mit der Philosophie Freier Software in vier Kategorien eingeteilt.<!-- These have already been outlined in lesson 1, but to re-iterate: --></para>
1170
782
                                <itemizedlist>
1171
783
                                        <listitem>
1172
 
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Main</emphasis></para>
 
784
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Main (Kernbereich)</emphasis></para>
1173
785
                                        </listitem>
1174
786
                                        <listitem>
1175
 
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Restricted</emphasis></para>
 
787
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Restricted (beschränkt)</emphasis></para>
1176
788
                                        </listitem>
1177
789
                                        <listitem>
1178
790
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Universe</emphasis></para>
1181
793
                                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Multiverse</emphasis></para>
1182
794
                                        </listitem>
1183
795
                                </itemizedlist>
1184
 
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">The Main Component</emphasis></para>
1185
 
                                <para>The main component contains software packages that are free
1186
 
                                and fully supported by the Canonical team. These packages comply
1187
 
                                with the free software philosophy. The packages in the main
1188
 
                                component are available by default while installing Ubuntu. For all
1189
 
                                packages in the main component, security updates and technical
1190
 
                                support are available free of cost. OpenOffice.org, Abiword and the 
1191
 
                                Apache web server are some of the packages found in the main
1192
 
                                component.</para>
1193
 
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">The Restricted Component</emphasis></para>
1194
 
                                <para>The restricted component consists of packages for commonly
1195
 
                                used software that are supported by the Ubuntu team but not available
1196
 
                                under a completely free license. Binary drivers produced by some
1197
 
                                video card vendors are examples of packages in the restricted
1198
 
                                component. Packages in this component are also available on the
1199
 
                                standard Ubuntu installation CD, but they can be easily removed.
1200
 
                                </para>
1201
 
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">The Universe Component</emphasis></para>
1202
 
                                <para>The universe component includes thousands of packages for software that 
1203
 
                                is not officially supported by Canonical. The software is available under
1204
 
                                a variety of free licenses, taken from a variety of public sources. This component is
1205
 
                                available only through the Internet.</para>
1206
 
                                <para>All the packages in this component are expected to work correctly.
1207
 
                                However, there is no guarantee of security fixes and
1208
 
                                support for these packages. The packages in this component are 
1209
 
                                maintained by the community.</para>
1210
 
                                <instructornote><title>Instructor Notes:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">It could be 
1211
 
                                considered risky to use packages from the Universe component, 
1212
 
                                especially because the lack of guaranteed security updates.</emphasis></para>
 
796
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Main: Der Kernbereich</emphasis></para>
 
797
                                <para>Der Kernbereich Main enthält Softwarepakete, die frei sind und vollständig durch das Team von Canonical unterstützt werden. Diese Pakete entsprechen der Philosophie Freier Software. Die Pakete aus dem Kernbereich Main stehen von Vornherein mit der Installation von Ubuntu zu Verfügung. Für alle Pakete im Kernbereich Main stehen Sicherheitsaktualisierungen und technische Unterstützung kostenfrei zur Verfügung. OpenOffice.org, Abiword und der Apache Webserver sind einige der im Kernbereich Main.</para>
 
798
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Restricted: Der beschränkte Bereich</emphasis></para>
 
799
                                <para>Der beschränkte Bereich enthält Pakete vielfach verwendeter Software, die voll durch das Ubuntu Team unsterstützt werden, aber nicht Software-Lizenz entsprechend der Philosophie Freier Software stehen. Binär-Treiber einiger Videokarten-Hersteller sind Beispiel-Pakete des beschränkten Bereichs. Pakete auch diesem Bereich sind auch auf der Standard-Installations-CD von Ubuntu enthalten, können aber leicht entfernt werden.</para>
 
800
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Der Bereich Universe</emphasis></para>
 
801
                                <para>Der Bereich Universe beinhaltet tausende von Paketen die nicht von Canonical offiziell unterstützt werden. Die Software ist unter einer Vielzahl an freien Lizenzen erhältlich und entstammt einer Vielzahl von öffentlichen Quellen. Dieser Bereich ist nur über das Internet erreichbar.</para>
 
802
                                <para>Alle Pakete in diesem Bereich sollten fehlerfrei funktionieren. Allerdings gibt es für diese Pakete keine Garantie für Sicherheitsupdates und Unterstützung. Die Pakete in diesem Bereich werden von der Entwicklergemeinde betreut.</para>
 
803
                                <instructornote><title>Hinweis für die Lehrkraft:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">Aufgrund des Mangels an garantierten Sicherheitsaktualisierungen könnte es riskant sein, Pakete aus dem Bereich Universe einzusetzen.</emphasis></para>
1213
804
                                </instructornote>
1214
 
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">The Multiverse Component</emphasis></para>
1215
 
                                <para>The multiverse component contains packages of non-free
1216
 
                                software, which means that the licensing requirements of these
1217
 
                                software does not meet the license policy of Ubuntu's main component.
1218
 
                                It is the user's responsibility to verify their rights to use these software
1219
 
                                and comply with their licensing terms. The packages in this component
1220
 
                                do not come with any support or security updates. Examples of these
1221
 
                                packages include VLC and the Adobe Flash plugin.</para>
1222
 
                                <instructornote><title>Instructor Notes:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">
1223
 
                                Software from the Multiverse component could be
1224
 
                                hindered by patents or other forms of restriction on usage and distribution.
1225
 
                                It is the user's responsibility to determine if the software can be
1226
 
                                used in its jurisdiction and complies with local laws.</emphasis></para></instructornote>
1227
 
                                <para>Many packages are not available in default Ubuntu
1228
 
                                repositories. These packages can either be installed from other
1229
 
                                Ubuntu repositories or from third-party software. To use the packages
1230
 
                                present in third-party software, you need to add the software. Perform
1231
 
                                the following steps to add the third-party software:
1232
 
                                <orderedlist numeration="arabic">
 
805
                                <para><emphasis role="strong">Der Bereich Multiverse</emphasis></para>
 
806
                                <para>Der Bereich Multiverse beinhaltet Pakete mit nicht-freier Software; das bedeutet, dass die Lizenzbedingungen dieser Software nicht den Lizenzvereinbarungen von Ubuntus Kernbereich Main entspricht. Die Überprüfung der Nutzungsberechtigung und Einhaltung der Lizenzbedingungen liegt in der Verantwortung des Anwenders. Für die Pakete in diesem Bereich gibt es keine Unterstützung oder Sicherheitsaktualisierungen. Beispiele solcher Pakete sind VLC und das Adobe Flash Plugin.</para>
 
807
                                <instructornote><title>Hinweis für die Lehrkraft:</title><para><emphasis role="italic">Software aus dem Bereich Multiverse kann durch Patente oder andere Formen der Einschränkung für die Nutzung und Weitergabe beschränkt sein. Die Überprüfung, ob die Software der lokalen Rechtsprechung und den Gesetzen entspricht, liegt in der Verantwortung des Anwenders.</emphasis></para></instructornote>
 
808
                                <para>Viele Pakete sind nicht in den Standard Ubuntu Repositories enthalten. Diese Pakete können entweder aus anderen Ubuntu Repositories installiert werden oder von der Software von Drittanbietern. Um Pakete aus der Software von Drittanbietern einzusetzen, müssen Sie diese Software einbinden. Führen Sie die folgenden Schritte durch, um Software von Drittanbietern einzubinden:<orderedlist numeration="arabic">
1233
809
                                        <listitem>
1234
 
                                                <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
1235
 
                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Administration</emphasis>
1236
 
                                                and then click <emphasis role="strong">Software
1237
 
                                                Sources</emphasis>.</para>
1238
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Launching Software Sources Dialogue Box</emphasis></title>
1239
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1240
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_049.png" format="PNG" />
1241
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1242
 
                                                </figure>
1243
 
                                                <para>The <emphasis role="strong">Software Sources</emphasis>
1244
 
                                                dialogue box opens. The software sources for
1245
 
                                                Ubuntu are selected by default.</para>
1246
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Selecting the Required Sources</emphasis></title>
1247
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1248
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_050.png" format="PNG" />
1249
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1250
 
                                                </figure>
1251
 
                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
1252
 
                                <para>You can also open the <emphasis role="strong">Software Sources</emphasis>
1253
 
                                dialogue box by using the Add/Remove applications or Synaptic Package Manager 
1254
 
                                to enable the repositories under the 
1255
 
                                <emphasis role="strong">Ubuntu Software</emphasis> tab.</para>
 
810
                                                <para>Gehen Sie im Menü <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis> auf <emphasis role="strong">Systemverwaltung</emphasis> und klicken dort auf <emphasis role="strong">Softwarequellen</emphasis>.</para>
 
811
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Aufruf des Dialogfensters Softwarequellen</emphasis></title>
 
812
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
813
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_049.png" format="PNG"/>
 
814
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
815
                                                </figure>
 
816
                                                <para>Das Dialogfenster &lt;e2&gt;Softwarequellen&lt;/e2&gt; öffnet sich. Die Softwarequellen für Ubuntu sind von Vornherein angewählt.</para>
 
817
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Auswahl der benötigten Quellen</emphasis></title>
 
818
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
819
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_050.png" format="PNG"/>
 
820
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
821
                                                </figure>
 
822
                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Hinweis:</emphasis></title>
 
823
                                <para>Sie können das Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Softwarequellen</emphasis> auch über Anwendungen Hinzufügen/Entfernen öffnen oder die Synaptic Paketverwaltung, um die Repositories im Reiter <emphasis role="strong">Ubuntu Software</emphasis> zu aktivieren.</para>
1256
824
                                </note>                                 
1257
825
                                        </listitem>
1258
826
                                        <listitem>
1259
 
                                                <para>To add a repository from the third party, click
1260
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">the Third-Party Software</emphasis>
1261
 
                                                tab and then click <emphasis role="strong">Add</emphasis>.
1262
 
                                                </para>
1263
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Adding a Third Party Software Source</emphasis></title>
 
827
                                                <para>Um ein Repository eines Drittanbieters hinzuzufügen, klicken Sie auf den Reiter <emphasis role="strong">Software von Drittanbietern</emphasis> und klicken dann auf <emphasis role="strong">Hinzufügen</emphasis>.</para>
 
828
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Hinzufügen der Quelle eines Drittanbieters</emphasis></title>
1264
829
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1265
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_051.png" format="PNG" />
 
830
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_051.png" format="PNG"/>
1266
831
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1267
832
                                                </figure>
1268
833
                                        </listitem>
1269
834
                                        <listitem>
1270
 
                                                <para>Type the APT line for the repository you want to add as a
1271
 
                                                source. To access the Debian main repositories, type
1272
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">deb
1273
 
                                                <ulink url="http://ftp.debian.orgs">http://ftp.debian.orgs</ulink>
1274
 
                                                sarge main</emphasis> in the
1275
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">APT line</emphasis> box. Click
1276
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Add Source</emphasis>.</para>
1277
 
                                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Note:</emphasis></title>
1278
 
                                                <para>The APT line should include the type, location and
1279
 
                                                components of a repository.</para></note>
1280
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Stating the Source APT Line</emphasis></title>
 
835
                                                <para>Geben Sie die APT-Zeile für das gewünschte Repository ein, um es als Quelle hinzuzufügen. Um Zugriff auf die Haupt-Repositories von Debian zu bekommen, geben Sie <emphasis role="strong">deb <ulink url="http://ftp.debian.orgs">http://ftp.debian.orgs</ulink> sarge main</emphasis> in das Textfeld <emphasis role="strong">APT-Zeile</emphasis> ein. Klicken Sie auf <emphasis role="strong">Quelle hinzufügen</emphasis>.</para>
 
836
                                                <note><title><emphasis role="strong">Hinweis:</emphasis></title>
 
837
                                                <para>Eine APT-Zeile sollte immer die Angaben Typ, Ort und Komponenten eines Repositories enthalten.</para></note>
 
838
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Eingabe der APT-Zeile der Quelle</emphasis></title>
1281
839
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1282
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_052.png" format="PNG" />
 
840
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_052.png" format="PNG"/>
1283
841
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1284
842
                                                </figure>       
1285
843
                                        </listitem>
1286
844
                                        <listitem>
1287
 
                                                <para>Click <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> to
1288
 
                                                save changes. The repository specified in the APT line is added
1289
 
                                                to the third-party software box.</para>
1290
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Software Sources Dialogue Box Displaying the Added Source</emphasis></title>
1291
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1292
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_053.png" format="PNG" />
1293
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1294
 
                                                </figure>
1295
 
                                        </listitem>
1296
 
                                        <listitem>
1297
 
                                                <para>With the addition of an extra repository, you will be
1298
 
                                                prompted to update information about available software. Click
1299
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Reload</emphasis> to do so.</para>
1300
 
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Reloading Available Software Information</emphasis></title>
1301
 
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1302
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_054.png" format="PNG" />
1303
 
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1304
 
                                                </figure>
1305
 
                                        </listitem>
1306
 
                                        <listitem>
1307
 
                                                <para>The progress indicator shows the status of package being
1308
 
                                                installed or removed.</para>
1309
 
                                                <para>You can authenticate your downloads from the
1310
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Authentication</emphasis> tab in the
1311
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Software Sources</emphasis>
1312
 
                                                dialogue box. When you do not authenticate your downloads,
1313
 
                                                your computer may show the error shown below after
1314
 
                                                downloading the package information. This error can be ignored.
1315
 
                                                To authenticate the downloading process, you need to import
1316
 
                                                the GPG key, which is different for every repository. Click
1317
 
                                                <emphasis role="strong">Close</emphasis> in the dialogue
1318
 
                                                box showing the error. This step will end the process of adding
1319
 
                                                extra repositories and updating package information.</para>
 
845
                                                <para>Um die Änderungen zu speichern, klicken Sie <emphasis role="strong">Schließen</emphasis>. Das mit der APT-Zeile festgelegte Repository ist nun den dem Feld Software von Drittanbietern hinzugefügt.</para>
 
846
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Im Dialogfenster Software-Quellen wird die hinzugefügte Quelle angezeigt</emphasis></title>
 
847
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
848
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_053.png" format="PNG"/>
 
849
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
850
                                                </figure>
 
851
                                        </listitem>
 
852
                                        <listitem>
 
853
                                                <para>Nach dem Hinzufügen eines zusätzlichen Repositories werden Sie gebeten, Informationen über neu verfügbare Software zu aktualisieren. Klicken Sie dafür auf  <emphasis role="strong">Neu Laden</emphasis>.</para>
 
854
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Neu Laden der Informationen über verfügbarer Software</emphasis></title>
 
855
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
 
856
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_054.png" format="PNG"/>
 
857
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
 
858
                                                </figure>
 
859
                                        </listitem>
 
860
                                        <listitem>
 
861
                                                <para>Die Fortschrittsanzeige zeigt den Status der Pakete, die installiert oder entfernd werden.</para>
 
862
                                                <para>Über den Reiter <emphasis role="strong">Authentifizierung</emphasis> im Dialogfenster <emphasis role="strong">Softwarequellen</emphasis> können Sie Ihre heruntergeladenen Pakete authentifizieren. Wenn Sie Ihre heruntergeladenen Pakete nicht authentifizieren, kann Ihr Computer nach dem Herunterladen der Paketinformationen Ihnen unten stehende Fehlermeldung anzeigen. Diesen Fehler können Sie ignorieren. Um den Vorgang des Herunterladens zu authentifizieren, müssen Sie einen GPG-Schlüssel importieren. DIeser ist für jedes Repository anders. Klicken Sie in der Fehlermeldung <emphasis role="strong">Schließen</emphasis>. Dieser Schritt beendet das Hinzufügen zusätzlicher Repositories und das Aktualisieren der Paket-Informationen.</para>
1320
863
                                                <figure><title><emphasis role="italic">Public Key Error</emphasis></title>
1321
864
                                                        <mediaobject><imageobject>
1322
 
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_055.png" format="PNG" />
 
865
                                                                <imagedata fileref="images/Lesson07_images_055.png" format="PNG"/>
1323
866
                                                        </imageobject></mediaobject>
1324
867
                                                </figure>
1325
868
                                                </listitem>
1326
869
                                </orderedlist>
1327
870
                                </para>
1328
 
                        <para>On the <emphasis role="strong">System</emphasis>
1329
 
                                                menu, point to <emphasis role="strong">Administration</emphasis>
1330
 
                                 &